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In spite of the main goal of the annalistic narration of Livy, the description of the history of Rome, Alexander the Great has an important role in the Ab Urbe condita . In this way, Livy composed the first known counterfactual episode of European historiography (IX 17–19). Moreover, Livy compared the courage, knowledge and the fortune of the Macedonian and the Roman military commanders, and the opposing forces. Livy presents Alexander with his bad traits, therefore the historiographer denies the divinity of the Macedonian king. Livy opposes the few Greeks, who rejected the order of Augustus, and hated the princeps himself.

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While in Fars (January/February-May/June 330 B.C.) Alexander tried to gain acceptance of the Persians as the lawful successor to the Achaemenid kings. Failure of this endeavour and the perceived danger of Darius' III lead to a Macedonian campaign of terror aiming at breaking the Persian will to resist. It culminated in burning three palatial buildings in Persepolis in May 330 B.C. Alexander's decision to do so, rational at the moment of its execution, proved a mistake after the resistance organized by Darius III collapsed.

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In the article the manuscript of the first Arabic prose work is being investigated. The author comes to the conclusion that it was written originally in Greek by somebody who was attached to one of the rhetoric schools in Syria. The Greek work contains the alleged correspondence between Aristotle and Alexander the Great. The Greek version of the novel in letters must be dated back to the sixth century A.D., thus the work is one of the last documents of the classical Greek literature. Through this novel one can get a better insight into the activity of the schools of rhetoric in the late Antiquity and the question of Pseudo-Aristotle's treatises.

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. Morello (n. 1) 65. See Morello (n. 1) 67 and 69. See Morello (n. 1) 70–72. Livy 8. 3. 6. For the connection of Alexander the Great to his uncle’s failed invasion, see Ligeti, D. Á : Elements of

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The tradition of Alexander the Great influenced strongly Livy’s historiography. Although the marginal Roman state of the 4th century BC only had negligible connections to Alexander the Great, his figure and historical role were in the center of Livy’s interest. Beside the famous Alexandros digression (IX 17–19), Livy used other elements of the Hellenistic tradition which was based on the prosopography of Alexander III.

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Alexander the Great . Bern, Peter Lang. Hillenbrand R. The Problematics of Power: Eastern and Western Representations of Alexander the Great

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Nagy Sándor hadjárata a szogdok és a Sir-darya folyón túl élő szkíták ellen fontos fordulópontot jelent az ókori Közép-Ázsia történetében. Nagy Sándor Közép-Ázsiába vezetett hadjáratának történeti jelentőségét abban láthatjuk, hogy igyekezett megvédeni Közép-Ázsia iráni, később görög urbanizációját az északi nomádok rabló betöréseitől megelőző katonai expedíciókkal, várakkal és erődítmény-rendszerekkel. Tevékenysége mintakép lett utódai számára és ezek a védelmi rendszerek fokozatosan kiterjedtek Európára és Kelet-Ázsiára is, s egy fejlett déli és egy fejletlenebb övezetre osztották az ókori és kora középkori világot.

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A római irodalom a IV/III. század fordulójától fogva értelmezhetetlen az exemplaria Grae-cafigyelembevétele nélkül. A lysipposi Nagy Sándor-ábrázolás tömeges korai utánzatai Campa-niában azt jelzik, hogy a makedón világhódító meteorszerűjelensége szinte egyidejűleg Itáliában is foglalkoztatta az embereket. Ezt a folyamatot mutattuk be a Fabius Pictor, Ennius, Coelius Anti-pater, Sisenna, Sallustius, Livius és Tacitus írásaiból vett, illetve feltárt példákkal.

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The roots of physiology — on the basis of a systematic study of the human body’s functions and their correlation to anatomy — date back to the works of Aristotle. The pupil of Plato and the tutor of Alexander the Great was a one-man university, and his contributions to the medical sciences have been immense. His surviving works highlight the first serious approach towards the rejection of metaphysical and mythological thought, and have: (i) demonstrated a deep appreciation for a systematic, non-metaphysical study of the natural world, (ii) set the foundations of comparative and human anatomy, (iii) established the first (indirect) definition of the “physiologist”, and (iv) exercised a dominant influence upon the subsequent history of Hellenistic, European and Arabic Medicine. The current letter provides a short commentary on the historical account of Physiology as a scientific field and underlines the unique legacy that Aristotle has provided us with.

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