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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: H. J. Ding, Y. N. Niu, Y. B. Xu, W. F. Yang, S. G. Yuan, Z. Qin, and X. H. Zhou

Summary  

The extraction of protactinium with Aliquat 336 (methyl-tri-caprylyl ammonium chloride) in toluene, cyclohexane and chloroform from HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, HClO4, HF and mixed HCl-HF media was investigated by radioactive tracer technique. Distribution ratios of protactinium between the aqueous solution and the organic phase were determined as a function of shaking time, concentrations of acid in aqueous solution phase, extractant concentration and type of diluents in the organic phase. Aliquat 336 can almost quantitatively extract protactinium from strong HCl solution. At the same time, small amounts of HF in HCl solutions have a strong effect on Pa distribution.

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Abstract  

A new ion exchange material prepared by impregnating Aliquat-336 on silica-gel has been investigated for the recovery of plutonium from nitric-oxalic acid solutions. The distribution ratio of Pu(IV) was studied at various concentrations of nitric and oxalic acids. The presence of Al(III) and Fe(III) in the solution, enhances the uptake of Pu(IV). Pu(IV) breakthrough capacities (btc) have been determined using 2.5 ml bed of the ion exchange material column in the absence and the presence of Al(III) and Fe(III) nitrate. The elution behavior of Pu(IV) was also studied using nitric acid solutions containing reducing agents. More than 90% of plutonium could be recovered from nitric-oxalic acid solutions.

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Abstract  

The extraction of Pu(IV) from oxalic acid-nitric acid mixtures has been investigated using a liquid anion exchanger, Aliquat-336, in xylene. The presence of oxalic acid is known to have adverse effects on the extraction of Pu(IV) by Aliquat-336. The use of cations, Al(III), Fe(III) or Zr(IV) was explored to overcome the effect of oxalic acid on Pu(IV) extraction. The data obtained reveal that Pu(IV) is quantitatively extracted by Aliquat-336, even in the presence of oxalic acid, when Al(III), Fe(III) or Zr(IV) is added. The extracted Pu(IV) can be back-extracted using aqueous ammonium carbonate.

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Abstract  

The extraction behaviour of beryllium from HCl-KCNS by Aliquat 336, a quaternary ammonium halide, in various diluents is described. The dependence of extraction on thiocyanate concentration, pH of aqueous phase, metal and extractant concentrations, has been investigated. Extraction mechanism is suggested on the basis of results obtained.

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Abstract  

Presence of thiocyanate ions results in appreciable extraction of Zr(IV) by Aliquat 336 from low aqueous HCl acidities, i.e., 0.1 to 4.5M. The variation of concentrations of HCl, thiocyanate and Aliquat 336 greatly influences the extent of extraction. Mixtures of Aliquat 336 and TOPO result in synergistic extraction of Zr and Hf from acidic thiocyanate media, the extracted species being the disolvate with TOPO. By controlled adjustment of HCl, SCN and Aliquat 336 concentrations, separation of Zr, Nb and Hf is possible. A maximum separation factor (DNb/DZr) of 3675 has been achieved under certain conditions.

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Abstract  

The transport of hydrochloric acid across a supported liquid membrane using Aliquat 336 in xylene as a carrier was studied. The effect of carrier concentration (0.1–0.6M) on the transportation of hydrochloric acid with and without phase modifier was investigated. The study indicated that the flux of transportation decreased with increasing carrier concentration in the absence of phase modifier. In the presence of phase modifier, however, the flux increased up to 0.2M carrier concentration and started decreasing afterwards. The transportation behavior of hydrochloric acid with and without phase modifier has been attributed to the tendency of aggregation of the carrier.

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Abstract  

A rapid extractive photometric method using Aliquat-336 and xylenol organe for the determination of plutonium(IV) at μg levels has been developed. Quantitative extraction is obtained from ∼4M aqueous HNO3 medium, affording estimation in the presence of several commonly occurring impurities, viz. iron, uranium, fission products and cladding materials. Effects of acidity, reagent concentration and diverse ions on the estimation have also been invetigated. Unlike the well-known absorptiometric method for determining plutonium(IV) employing Arsenazo III, the procedure presented here tolerates manyfold excesses of uranium(VI) as well as chromium(III), iron(III) and zirconium(IV), which are some of the major contaminants of plutonium during reprocessing.

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Abstract  

Thorium was quantitatively extracted with 0.1M Aliquat 336S at pH 4.5 from 0.01M ascorbic acid. It was then stripped with 2M hydrochloric acid. Thorium arsenazo III complex was determined spectrophotometrically at 655 nm. It was separated from binary and tertiary mixtures by exploiting the difference in distribution ratios of various elements from ascorbic acid media. Some separations were accomplished by selective stripping of thorium from nitric and hydrochloric acid. The method was extended for the analysis of thorium in monazite and gas mantles.

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Abstract  

A rapid method based on the extraction of neptunium(IV) by Aliquat-336 followed by its direct photometric determination in the organic phase employing xylenol orange is reported. Optinum conditions have been established for the extraction and determination of as little as 0.4 ppm of Np. The molar absorptivity of the red-coloured neptunium complex at 535 nm is 49535±361 1·mol−1·cm−1. Unlike the well-known absorptimetric method for estimating NP(IV) with Arsenazo III, this method tolerates many-fold excesses of fluoride, nitrite, nitrate, phosphote, oxalate as well as UO 2 2+ , Pu4+, Zr4+, etc., which are some of the major contaminants associated with neptunium during its reprocessing.

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Abstract  

Extraction studies of neodymium and praseodymium with mixtures of tributyl phosphate and Aliquat-336 in xylene have been carried out. From 3.0M aqueous ammonium nitrate solutions, negatively charged complexes of neodymium and praseodymium were extracted with Aliquat-336 in the presence of tributyl phosphate into the organic phase. The synergic extracted species observed was M(NO3) 4 L+·TBP. The synergic extraction of lanthanide elements in nitrate media increases from lanthanum to lutetium.

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