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The study deals with the effect of chemical and physical modifications on thermal properties and solubility properties of films based on amaranth flour starch–protein hydrolysate. Biodegradable and edible films were prepared by casting a 25% (w/w) solution of hydrolysate containing 20% glycerol and various additions of dialdehyde starch (0, 1 and 5%). After thermal exposure of films at 65 and 95 °C (for 6 and 48 h), thermal properties of films were studied employing differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. Film solubility tests were performed in an aqueous environment at 25 °C. Chemical and physical modifications of films markedly affect their thermal properties and solubility.

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In vitro bioavailability/Caco-2 cell culture system was used to assess calcium, magnesium and iron bioavailability from different types of biscuits enriched with the mixtures of pseudocereals and legumes with inulin. Comparisons were made with the wheat flour based biscuit as a reference sample, in order to develope functional biscuit with improved mineral content, bioavailability and uptake. A significant increase of mineral content was achieved in all modified biscuits in relation to reference sample. Average bioavailability of investigated minerals ranged from 41.1% (Fe and Ca) up to 71.2% (Mg). Caco-2 cell uptake of investigated elements ranged from 7.13% to 12.20% for Fe; from 26.39% to 38.95% for Ca and from 19.65% to 27.17% for Mg. Inulin was determined as an important promoter of Ca and Mg bioavailability. Polyphenols and dietary fibre were determined as the principal components impairing the uptake of Fe and Ca. Enrichment of the reference recipe with the mixture of inulin with soy or amaranth flour positively influenced bioavailability/uptake of the investigated minerals.

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Comparative study of composition and technological quality of amaranth

I. Gross chemical composition, amino acid and mineral content

Acta Alimentaria
Authors: S. Tömösközi, I. Baracskai, R. Schönlechner, E. Berghofer, and R. Läsztity

proteins 1985 Paredez-Lopez, O., Mendoza, V. & Mora, R. (1993): Isolation of amaranth flour proteins by

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cereals, but mostly lower than in legumes. Due to its high protein content, amaranth flour has been characterized by highest water holding capacity within all pseudocereals, ranging between 1.60 and 2.15 g/g ( De Bock et al., 2021 ). This has been

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the United Nations . Islas-Rubio , A.R. , Calderón De La Barca , A.M. , Cabrera-Chávez , F. , Cota-Gastélum , A.G. , and Beta , T. ( 2014 ). Effect of semolina replacement with a raw:popped amaranth flour blend on cooking quality and texture

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. Thermal study and solubility tests of films based on amaranth flour starch–protein hydrolysate . J Therm Anal Calorim . 2009 ; 98 : 299 – 307 . 10.1007/s10973-009-0106-4 . 17. Sahin , NO

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