. and Pócs , T. ( 2016 ): Bryoflora and landscapes of the eastern Andes of central Peru: I. Liverworts of the El Sira Communal Reserve . – Acta Biol. Plant. Agriensis 4 : 3 – 60 . https://doi.org/10.21406/abpa.2016
stone sculpture, goldwork, and painted textiles.
Most research on this subject has concentrated on the use of San Pedro cactus ( Trichocereus sp.) on the Peruvian north coast and adjacent mountains of the North Central Andes on archeological
The new genus is based on Palicourea locellata C. M. Taylor described from the Colombian Andes and placed into the Nonatelia section reconsidered and strongly enlarged by C. M. Taylor including 26 species into the originally monotypic section. According the new protologue of the section it is a highly varied and rather heterogeneous group in morphological point of view. Therefore the section Nonatelia C. M. Taylor is interpreted here in a reduced sense including not more than 5 species. The remained 19 species belong to an undetermined unit or to more units for the moment. Apparently two species Palicourea locellata and P. woronowii do not fit well into Nonatelia, and even to the genus Palicourea either. For the separation of P. woronowii there is not sufficient information, but in the case of P. locellata the morphological information available are well-enough for its distinction on generic level. The new genus is dedicated to the author of the species, being Tromlyca the anagram of C. M. Taylor.
The ancestors of the early, multi-rowed, hard-grained flint maize varieties found in Central Europe, and also of some of the dent varieties, were in all probability Chutucuno Chico and Chutucuno Grande (Timothy et al., 1961), chilling-tolerant, daylength-insensitive, small-eared, multi-rowed, prolific, hard flint popcorn varieties with reddish-brown kernels originating from the slopes of the Andes and introduced into Hungary in the early 1800s via Italy (Nagyváthy, 1822). In Italy and Hungary these varieties were given the names Cinquantino and Pignoletto. In addition to these Andean sources, a considerable contribution to the hard-grained gene pool was also made by Hungarian flints of Caribbean origin, and to a lesser extent by Southern Dents and Corn Belt Dents, while Northern Flints played little role in its development. These maize varieties were grown chiefly for human consumption (in the form of porridge) and were exported to Italy, Slovenia and Romania. The high price paid for exported maize, the low yield and undesirably long vegetation period of the initial sources, and the need to improve the colour and ear fusarium resistance of commercial maize meant that breeding was begun as early as the 1850s. The data available indicate that in around 1856, probably for the first time in Europe but independently of each other, Pál Németh and Pál Máthé crossed Cinquantino with other varieties in order to produce new varieties. These varieties, and those later selected from them, played a role in the maize production of Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia, Slovakia and other countries for a period of 100 years. In addition, they probably exerted a significant effect on the early flint gene pools of all European countries where the vegetation period is either extremely short or extremely cool.
Authors:A. Arredondo-Núñez, E. Badano, and R. Bustamante
Arroyo M.T.K., L.A. Cavieres, A. Peñaloza and M.A. Arroyo-Kalin. 2003. Positive interactions between the cushion plant
(Apiaceae) and alpine plant species in the Chilean Patagonian Andes
Authors:A. Bravo, L. Ponce, P. Párraga, R. Oliva, and K. Proaño
In this study we analyzed the performance of three wheat varieties in relation to gluten content under high-altitude growing conditions in the Andes of Ecuador. A field experiment was conducted at 3058 meters above sea level during 2009 using adapted wheat cultivar Cojitambo, cv. Carnavalero, and cv. Sibambe. Transcript accumulations of High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunits (HMW-GS) genes were also evaluated during grain development using qRT-PCR. We recorded the expression profile of HMW-GS genes during 41 days and showed a coordinated pattern of induction with significant higher levels at 82–86 days. Transcript accumulation of 1Dx5, 1Dy10, 1Bx7, 1Ax1, and 1By9 genes were analyzed in more details during this period. The assay highlighted the specific contribution of 1Bx7, 1Dy10, and 1Dx5 during gluten formation in Ecuadorian wheat varieties. Under Andean highlands conditions, cv. Carnavalero showed the higher values of total agglomerated protein upon hydration and higher levels of expression of particular HMW-GS genes. The data suggest a correlation between wet gluten content and HMW-GS genes expression. Our study contributes to understand gluten formation in wheat endosperm under high-altitude conditions in the Andes.