“But if we died with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with him… For the death that he died, he died unto sin once: but the life that he liveth, he liveth unto God.” The antithesis in the Epistle of Paul to the Romans enjoyed great popularity in medieval literature, specifically amongst monastic authors. Dezső Pais and János Bollók observed a striking parallel between the biblical passage and the conclusion of the Gesta Hungarorum. János Győry explained the resemblance with the literary impact of the 12th-century Gesta consulum Andegavorum on the anonymous author of the Gesta Hungarorum. On the other hand, the quotation could have been borrowed from a letter by Paulinus of Nola. Another source from early medieval Hungary, the arenga of the charter of hermit Andreas (1130-1140) contains a paraphrased version of the passage, now openly articulating monastic ideals: Ut mortuus seculo, solussoli viveret Deo. The same wording was preserved in a homily for the feast of Saint Blaise attributed to abbot Gottfried of Admont (dG1165) and an antiphon which represents a liturgical tradition originating in Rheinau. Considering the 12th-century political relationship between Admont and Hungary, it is very likely that the charter of Andreas testifies about the impact of the Admont school on Hungarian monasteries.
The article aims at summarising the evidence of European sources concerning the towns of the Middle Volga region. First, the Hungarian Anonymus's Gesta Ungarorum is scrutinised, then the Western travellers' accounts are considered. The result is that prior to the 14th century only Bulgar, the capital of Volga Bulgaria was known to medieval West. In the second part of the paper the works of 14th-15th-century European cartography are investigated. The names and locations of three towns (Bulgar, Kremencuk and Jüketau) are dealt with in detail. The final conclusion is that these maps, though they are precious contemporary sources, must be handled with special caution and criticism.
Bibliográfia / References Anonymus ,. Anonymus: Gesta Hungarorum. Ford. / Transl.: Pais Dezső. In: Szöveg gyűjtem ény a régi magyar irodalom történetéhez. Középkor (1000–1530). [Antho logy to the history of old Hungarian literature. Middle Ages