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The heteropteran fauna in three apple orchards in Kent and East Sussex, England was surveyed in 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2006. As a result of intensive sampling, a total of 104 species were recorded. Ninety species were recorded in an experimental apple orchard at East Malling Research, Kent, which had replicated plots subject to different pesticide management regimes, while 43 and 38 species were recorded in two commercial organic apple orchards near Marden, Kent and Robertsbridge, East Sussex, respectively. In the canopy layer the abundant species, in decreasing order of their relative abundance, were Orius vicinus, Atractotomus mali, Anthocoris nemorum, Heterotoma planicornis, Phytocoris reuteri, Lygus rugulipennis, Phytocoris longipennis, Palomena prasina, Orthotylus marginalis, Blepharidopterus angulatus and Deraeocoris ruber . These 11 species comprised at least 80% of the total Heteroptera abundance in the canopy in each apple orchard. The composition of bug communities differed between years and between the plots subject to different insecticide regimes in the experimental orchard at East Malling. However, these differences were exceeded by the characteristic differences in species composition and relative abundances between the three different orchards.

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The species richness and composition ofAuchenorrhyncha assemblages in three apple orchards in Kent and East Sussex, England was surveyed in 2001 and 2002. Planthoppers, leafhoppers and froghoppers were collected from the tree canopies using yellow sticky traps and a tree beating technique, and from the grass alleyways between the trees using sweep-netting. As a result of intensive sampling, 67 species were collected in an experimental apple orchard at East Malling Research, with a further 30 and 36 species in two organic apple orchards, situated near Marden and Robertsbridge, respectively. A total of 77 species was recorded in the survey. The collection methods applied determined substantially the size and species composition of the samples, the relative abundance of the Auchenorrhyncha species and proportion of males. The most common species collected in the canopy, in decreasing order were: Edwardsiana rosae, Empoasca decipiens, Ribautiana debilis, Edwardsiana crataegi, Empoasca vitis, Philaenus spumarius and Tachycixius pilosus .

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In our present study we aimed to recognize the temporal and spatial patterns of Noctuinae communities (Lep.Noctuidae)of four differently managed apple orchards laying in different localities of Hungary.Data were obtained by light trap collection. The quantitative data resulting from our investigations were analyzed by multivariate methods and were also analyzed by their diversity characteristics.As a result connections were found regarding the diversities of species and individuals,the patterns of occurrence and phenological properties.The studies were based on 8497 individuals of 39 species.

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We have examined the community structure indices (species richness, dominance, diversity and similarity) of the rove beetles (Staphylinidae) assemblages in three differently treated apple orchards in Hungary.During the survey, a total number of 728 specimens belonging to 73 species were collected with pitfall traps. The dominant species were Omalium caesum, Drusilla canaliculata, Dexiogyia corticina, Mocyta orbata and Styloxys insecatus .Out of the differently treated orchards, the staphylinid abundance was the higher in the abandoned than in the conventionally treated and in integrated pest management orchards.The diversity profile of the communities showed that there were no differences between the diversity of the conventionally treated and abandoned orchards, and both were significantly more diverse than the IPM orchard. The similarity indices indicated that the forming dominance of the species was also influenced by the treatment. The distribution of the dominant species in each pitfall trap used in each plot shows the insecticide tolerance of the species

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In our 3-year study ground beetle assemblages were investigated in habitats with different weed coverage and insecticide treatments in an apple orchard in Hungary. The aim of the study was to compare the effects on the activity density and composition of carabid assemblages of two insecticide disturbance levels; 1) applications of selective insecticides (integrated plant protection, IPM - representing lower degree of disturbance); 2) applications of broad-spectrum insecticides (conventional plant protection - representing a higher degree of disturbance). Particular attention was paid to the joint effects of weed patterns in the orchard and insecticide treatments as well as to the carabid assemblages in the two neighbouring semi-natural habitats. The less intense insecticide disturbance significantly increased the activity density and species richness of the apple orchard carabid assemblages.  The mosaic habitats of the orchard herb layer, where higher and lower herb coverage alternate, altogether maintained more abundant and diverse carabid assemblages, than the habitat of closed, dense vegetation. The intra-orchard habitats with higher weed coverage enhanced the post-disturbance re-colonisation from the hedges, and therefore resulted carabid assemblages more similar to those of the semi-natural hedge vegetation. However, this re-colonisation was not great enough to compensate for the high mortality of the orchard carabid assemblage, which mostly consisted of species rare in the hedges. The high insecticide disturbance, affected the diversity of carabid assemblages in the intra-orchard habitats of high and low weed coverage differently, probably because of induced inter-habitat movement. Habitat attachment and post-disturbance recovery of Amara aenea, A. bifrons, A. fulva, A. ingenua, Broscus cephalotes, Calathus ambiguus, C. erratus, C. fuscipes, Cicindela hybrida, Harpalus albanicus, H. distinguendus, H. flavescens, H. froelichi, H. hirtipes, H. picipennis, H. rufipes, H. serripes, H. servus and H. tardus are also discussed.

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About 2500 arthropod species immigrate, or carried by wind, or introduced by man in the orchards, under Hungarian climatic conditions. However, the number of the apple pest species is approximately 30. Owing to the effect of the relationships among the plant-phytophagous-zoophagous species those could colonize the orchard for which the apple provides suitable food sources and whose populations are not regulated or are regulated by a weak efficiency by parasitoids and predators. These populations create the primary pest communities. When the individual number of the parasitoid and predator species is reduced by the broad-spectrum insecticides, the population density of those phytophagous species could increase whose populations was restricted up to that time. In this case the secondary pest communities could develop. The integrated pest management provides the possibilities to solve the problems caused by the regular use of broad-spectrum insecticides. The real requirement is to find and to harmonize those methods which regulate the population dynamics of the species of the primary pest communities.

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. & DeLeVallée, D. (2006): Effect of leaf litter management on scab development in an organic apple orchard. Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. , 118 , 249–255. DeLeVallée D. Effect of leaf litter

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Lövei, G. L. 1981. Coccinellid community in an apple orchard bordering a deciduous forest. Acta Phytopathol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16:143–150. Lövei G. L. Coccinellid community in an

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2000 Nagy, P. T. & Holb, I. , 2006. Study on the macronutrient content of apple leaves in an organic apple orchard. Journal Central

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