Human beings live in a complex and magical system of nature. The constitution of everything is like the structure science of architecture, which presents various forms and combinations. The development of structure science makes modern architecture show the high unity of internal structure and external contour. Through the study of branch networks formed by rivers, the mystery of branch growth can be found, for instance fractal self-similarity, preferential growth at the tops, avoidance of homogeneity, etc. Based on the understanding of branch ecosystem, everyone can try to build a sustainable surface structure by mimicking the laws of river network.
The study offers a typology, a comparison and possible reconstructions of the 45 sunken and 15 above-ground buildings, the latter outlined by post-holes, uncovered at the Avar period settlement site of Rákóczifalva–Bagi-földek. The period’s few analogous sunken and above-ground houses are reviewed in detail. The structures uncovered at the site reflect a rich diversity of architectural forms, calling for a re-assessment of our earlier view of Avar period settlements.
Authors:Bojan Tepavčević, Milan Šijakov, and Radovan Štulić
Digital technology rapidly changes architectural practice in past two decades emerging new complex curved forms. New spatial aesthetics are not always developed in conventional CAD applications intended for architectural design.In this paper various approaches in architectural design education based on motion-based modeling techniques and usage of 3D animation software are discussed. Demands for usage of CGI (computer-generated imagery) software are founded on the assumption that architectural form is not only the manifestation of stationary parameter-driven relational logic, but it also respond to dynamic variables of contextual and socio-economical influences. The aim of the research is to describe, analyze and evaluate some of basic concepts of animation-based modeling techniques as well as their implementation in architectural education.
The structures, or architectural forms, can be very various. They are independent both as to text and tune, are inconcievable by lyrics or melody taken separately, have nothing to do with the conscious intention or representation of the singers themselves, and are spontaneously actualized during the singing. Due to such immaterial structuring possibilities, and using only the formal possibilities of the syntagmatic, in Romanian traditional/folk singing a single poetic text can receive 64 formal treatments/versions. For establishing the existence of these architectural variants I have started from observations such as the one belonging to Bartók, who noticed that Romanians had the peculiarity of singing the same verse four times. Other observations spoke about tree times repetitions of each verse, while in someother circumstances verses are repeated just once. If we logically establish all possible forms of sytagmatic repetitions we obtain this sum of 64 variants, which constitute the equally real and virtual being of each and any folk song. These structures and architectures were very important to the old, traditional/peasant aesthetics, and their actualization was essential espetially to ceremonial repertories such as Winter-Solstice-Songs (carols). By giving up devices such as verse repetition and stanzaic refrains, and by shortening the time for performing the epic songs of the peasant carol, what was lost was the immaterial aspect of unconscious constructing, the abysmal pleasure for implied mathematics, was lost one of the essences of the sacred experience, which is -as philosophers put it - 'experiencing the Number'.
The architectural heritage and the mode of its analysis and interpretation, specially in the perspective of national and regional question, can and often becomes the issue prone to manipulation. The attempts to define national and regional identity by means of cultural legacy have been accompanying the research into art and also the creation of modern architecture in the spirit of national Historicism already since the 19th century. The architecture of Gdansk has for years been the subject of a heated debate of both German and Polish architects, historians of architecture, and conservators. In the recent years also politicians have joined in the debate, and so have writers. The paper analyses the issue of the relation of architectural forms and rhetorical formulas, namely the combination of architecture and specific contents treated as signs of local identity, as well as changeability and interpretational flexibility of those issues with regard to the needs of political circumstances (idioms versus interpretational variants, stereotypes, research myths, likings versus scholarly idiosyncrasies). Special attention will be paid to the Gdansk architecture of the 2nd half of the 19th century and its contemporary and later interpretations in the perspective of regional and national identification.
This study aims to throw light on questions of 20th-century rural housing construction using standard plans with features differing from traditional architecture, and how this was related to lifestyle. Houses built to standard plans are significant not only from the architectural viewpoint but also as regards modernisation and the changing lifestyle. These houses are often the forerunners of modernisation and innovations, setting a pattern. The state projects in the interwar years were also responses to the deepening social crisis. The ONCSA (National Folk and Family Welfare Fund) movement was undoubtedly the most influential among the construction projects using standard plans in the interwar years, not only because of the numbers involved (more than 10,000 houses were built), but also because of the level of preparation and organisation.Construction with state support and using standard plans continued after the Second World War. A number of independent settlements were created in the early 1950s using these standard plans. Ebes was a typical example of this socialist village-building. From the 1960s there was a rapid proliferation of a new type of building, the square house that increasingly dominated the appearance of the village street and represented a complete departure from the earlier, traditional architectural forms and types. As a result of the new building types, modernisation and technical development, new objects and implements appeared in material culture, also influencing the lifestyle: it is sufficient to mention lighting, electrical appliances, mains water and modernised forms of heating.
The paper explores the history of columned rotundas in European landscape gardens with emphasis on three such edifices built in Hungary in the first half of the 19th century. The theme is the temple type called peripteros in architecture history which comprises a colonnade set in a circle around a pagan shrine, modeled on the Temple of Vesta surviving in Tivoli near Rome from the 1st century BC. It appeared in the art of the early modern times as a garden edifice, first in England in the first decades of the 18th century. The need for its modern-time use arose when man turned to the legacy and nature concept of antiquity to support his political, cultural, moral and artistic revival. With its architectural forms and role in the scenery the Temple of Vesta was already an iconic building of antiquity for artists and visitors to Italy well before it was transferred to landscape gardens where it was reborn in the form of a modern artistic phenomenon, incorporated in grand landscape compositions. Garden history registers some 15–20 surviving rotundas of the kind in European landscape gardens. The paper addresses itself to the history, owners, analogies of the rotundas in Stowe, Stourhead, Downhill (GB), Ermenonville, Méréville (F), Kassel (D), Pavlovsk (RUS), Puŀawy, Arkadia (PL), Veltrusy (CZ) and three Hungarian round temples: Hőgyész, Kismarton/Eisenstadt and Alcsút. It looks at their function, interior decoration, implications of the statues as well as their relation to antiquity and to the garden art creations of their own age.
Since the architectural form of the rotunda alone was capable of suggesting a connection with antiquity and at the same time represented modernity, the shaping of the specimens are compared to the Tivoli model. In this comparison the interior decoration and its implications might appear secondary. However, its significance lies in the fact that the designation and decoration of a rotunda became an important means for the adaptation of the building, representing the personality and personal affinities of the builder, the expectations of a country or community. When the rotundas with their statues and embellishments depicted political, philosophical programs, they reflected upon the present of the given country and anticipated a future image. For example, Stowe in England symbolizes liberal democracy, Ermenonville in France suggests the importance of science for humanity. In the two Polish rotundas at Puŀawy and Arkadia the enumeration of the relics of Polish and universal culture serves to preserve the unity and memory Poland cut up into three parts. These rotundas carry unusually strong emotional contents, which also characterizes the other colonnaded round temples, including the “Temples of Friendship”(Veltrusy, Pavlovsk, Kassel).
Where is the place of the Hungarian rotundas on this spectrum? The first was built by Count Antal Apponyi (1751–1817) at Hőgyész in Southern Hungary, in the garden of his country house (fig. 12). As a leading statesman of the Hungarian Kingdom, he spent a lot of time in his Vienna palace; steeped in music, he was the president of the Vienna Musikverein; also a free mason, he was one of the nominators of Joseph Haydn for his admission to the Vienna lodge. In his garden designed by Viennese masters he had a rotunda surrounded — unusually — by eight columns. The temple was to house the same-size replica of the Medici Venus in marble, made according to family tradition by Giuseppe Ceracchi of Rome, an Italian sculptor favored by European courts. For some time in the 1780s he worked in Vienna and was a member of the same masonic lodge as Apponyi. Later the sculptor became a Jacobin and was guillotined in Paris.
The other, far better known rotunda (fig. 13) was ordered by Prince Miklós Esterházy (1764–1833) to be built in the landscape garden (1803—1822) of his mansion in Kismarton (today Eisenstadt, Austria). The large-scale garden and its edifices were planned by the prince's architect from Paris, Charles Moreau. The character of the building has similarities with the rotunda of Méréville in both the shape of the building and the sculptural ornamentation of the interior. Besides, both rotundas were preceded by a painter's picture as a source of inspiration to have a rotunda in a natural setting. In Méréville Hubert Robert, in Eisenstadt Albert Christoph Dies painted a picture in oil (1807, fig. 11). A few years earlier Dies made a series of engravings of picturesque Italian landscapes including the Temple of Vesta in Tivoli (1793, fig. 10). Although the rotunda in Eisenstadt was first to have been dedicated to Neptun, then to Venus, eventually the prince had the magnificent statue of his daughter Leopoldina Esterházy by Antonio Canova inspired by statues of classical antiquity (1805–1819, fig. 17) placed in the temple.
The third Hungarian rotunda perished long ago, its memory revived by this paper alone. It was ordered to be built by Archduke Joseph of Habsburg (the brother of Emperor Francis I), the palatine of Hungary. His seat was in the royal castle of Buda, and he had a duly famous landscape garden on Margaret Island in the Danube. In the centre of his rural estates, Alcsút, he had a representative country house erected in a former wasteland and with the help of his court gardener Anton Trost a magnificent landscape garden was created around the house. At the tallest point he had first a monopteros (fig. 21) and later in the first half of the 1840s a peripteros erected (fig. 18) in which he collected the stone relics of a Roman military camp found in the neighborhood and excavated upon his order. Similarly to their European counterparts, the rotundas in Hőgyész, Eisenstadt and Alcsút manifest the changing concept of nature and the attraction to antiquity as a reliable point of reference. The owners chose for their landscape gardens a building type reminding one of ancient Rome while in the interiors all three manifested their personal relations to antiquity through different cultural orientations. That lent the architectural form and spiritual function of the colonnaded rotundas their exceptional harmony — for a short time.
In a relatively short time, this harmony began to crumble. Not that the decisions to choose these art works or architectural forms were mistaken: this building type was an up-to-date representative of European landscape gardens all over Central Europe at that time. The world changed around them concerning their function; nearly in the same decades as their construction, new communal forms and spaces of encountering arts, including the art of antiquity had appeared all over Europe: the museum. It emerged as an urban phenomenon, as part of the urban culture, accessible to all, a promoter or means of social integration. The art works — however valuable — collected by private art patronage and displayed in aristocratic residences were gradually obscured and left out of publicity, affecting their subsequent fate. Leopoldina Esterházy's statue disappeared from view for a long time, and for some sixty years now it has been in the Eisenstadt mansion instead of the peripteros. The replica of the Venus de' Medici once at Hőgyész was given to a Budapest museum by the Apponyi family over a century ago (figs. 15, 16) and the round temple was converted into their sepulchral chapel. The rotunda at Alcsút was pulled down in the second half of the 19th century, the Roman relics in the estate of palatine Joseph were transferred to the Hungarian National Museum (fig. 19). Few of the European peripteroi kept their original interior decoration, and those that did relied on the active participation of the official historic garden protection.
The art historical significance of the colonnaded round temples lies in their dual function in a decisive art form of the age, landscape architecture: they were pronounced elements of space articulation on the one hand and the representatives of the owners' attitude to antiquity and modernity. That lent them their appeal in and outside England, their adoption and transfer to the continent symbolizing a wide European horizon and the affirmation of the cultural community. The visual power of the formal order of a peripteros still emanates exceptional harmony and solemnity. This even comes through from the garden and landscape photos of visitors to landscape gardens, from the background elements of newly-wed couples or, for that matter, from the rotunda appearing at a dramaturgical culminating point in a new film adaptation of Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice (2005, featuring Keira Knightley).
Tanulmányomban a templomhomlokzat és az oltárépítmény felépítésének, tagoló rendszerének párhuzamaira kívántam felhívni a figyelmet. Mind a homlokzatoknak, mind az oltárarchitektúráknak a tervezői építészek voltak, így természetes, hogy hasonló motívumokat használtak fel mind a két esetben. A tridenti zsinat utáni katolikus megújulás fontos szereplője, Borromei Szent Károly, új tabernákulumformát és tértípust hozott létre a lombard építész, Pellegrino Tibaldi közreműködésével. Pellegrinónak kulcsszerepe volt a jezsuita templomtípus megteremtésében, tervei nyomán nem csupán Milánóban, hanem Torinóban is épült templom; hatása kimutatható a bécsi domonkos templom homlokzatán is, amelynek építésze, a bissonei Giovanni Giacomo Tencalla családjának több tagja révén közvetíthette Magyarországra az itáliai hatást. Az építészek, mint például a bécsi Kirche am Hof tervezője, a luganói Filiberto Lucchese, maguk is terveztek oltárokat, vagy közreműködtek a stukkátorokkal, akik gyakran ugyanabból a régióból érkeztek, mint a tervező építész. Így fordulhatott elő, hogy a nyugat-dunántúli stukkóoltárokat általában észak-itáliai mesterek készítették a templomhomlokzatok nyomán.
Summary. This study proposes to re-examine the dynamic interaction between the frontispiece of the church and the high altar. While the façade often functions as an open-air altarpiece, the altar itself is a “gate of Paradise.” Both the frontispieces and the altar structures were designed by architects, consequently, they use similar motives. Carlo Borromeo, as a key-figure of post-tridentine church reformed the sacred space and the tabernacle of the Cathedral in Milan following the designs of Pellegrino Tibaldi. Pellegrino played an eminent role in creating a new Jesuit church-type in San Fedele, Milan, which served as a model for the Corpus Christi basilica in Torino as well as for the Santa Maria Dominican Church in Vienna. The latter one was planned by Giovanni Giacomo Tencalla from Bissone (Lugano), and from the same family stemmed well-known stuccators and painters, who also worked for Hungarian commissioners. The architect of the Jesuit church Kirche am Hof in Vienna, Filiberto Lucchese, also worked for the Batthyány family, and designed altarpieces. In this way, we are able to establish a strong interaction between the altar-structure and façade, bringing considerable novelty in analysing architectural forms and design.
A formakeresés az alkotói folyamat jellemző része. Legyen szó építészeti vagy szerkezeti formáról, ez a tervezés egyik legalapvetőbb és egyben legösszetettebb feladata. Elsődleges eszközei a rajz és a fizikai (vagy virtuális) modell. Sok esetben a szerkezeti rendszer kialakítása csak az építészeti forma által meghatározott geometriai korlátok között lehetséges. A dolgozat célja, hogy olyan ismert, az alkotót segítő módszereket tekintsen át, melyek már az alapvető geometria meghatározásakor figyelembe veszik az adott építőanyag szerkezeti viselkedését, ami döntően meghatározza az építészeti formát is.
A formakeresés iteratív folyamat, melyben kulcsfontosságú, hogy az egyes paraméterek (terhelés, geometria) változtatásának hatásáról a tervező közvetlen visszajelzést kapjon. Ennek előfeltétele, hogy a szerkezet működése megfelelően leegyszerűsíthető legyen, grafikai vagy fizikai modell esetében egyaránt. Erre a tisztán nyomásra vagy húzásra igénybe vett szerkezetek különösen alkalmasak, ahol a folyamatos felületek viselkedése önsúly hatása alatt viszonylag jól közelíthető diszkrét rúdlánccal/rúdhálóval. Antoni Gaudi és Frei Otto kötélmodelljei is ezen az elven alapultak. Ugyancsak az interaktivitás, a szerkezeti működés láthatóvá, érzékelhetővé tételének igénye inspirálta Karl Culmannt, amikor a grafostatika elveit lefektette. Mind a modellezés, mind a grafikai módszerek legfőbb korlátját az jelentette, hogy a léptékváltásból eredően az esetleges kezdeti pontatlanságok, illetve az ún. mérethatás révén a szerkezet működése a modellen tapasztaltaktól jelentősen eltérhet, így a szerkezettervezés egyre inkább a numerikus módszerek irányába tolódott el. Boltozatok és bizonyos héjszerkezetek esetében azonban az alábbiak szerint a keresztmetszetek jelentős tartalékai miatt ezek a hatások kevésbé jelentősek.
A számítógépes modellezés fejlődése nyomán a fenti módszerek reneszánszukat élik: számítógépes környezetben a korábbi problémák (pontatlanság, méretvétel) egyszerűen áthidalhatóak. A témában folyó jelenlegi kutatások ígéretes alkalmazásokat mutatnak egyrészt történeti (jellemzően boltozott) szerkezetek elemzése, másrészt „szabadon formált”, összetett (boltozott) héjak tervezése terén.