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Choice of a spouse, feasts and games, meals, food and drink, handicraft and arts . This article is a transcript and French translation of the first five chapters of Book 3 of the Latin manuscript by the Jesuit F. X. Eder on the missions or reductions in the Amerindian nations of the Moxos and Baures. It is the continuation of the first seven articles on the Jesuit missions in the now-Bolivian Amazon basin in the 18th century , entitled:

  1. 1. Lima, Peru, and their inhabitants in the 18th century.
  2. 2. Jesuit missions in the now Bolivian Amazon basin in the 18th century.
  3. 3. Quality of the soil and description of the Indians.
  4. 4. Constructive works, belief and superstitions of the Indians, and how to convince them to join a reduction.
  5. 5. Trees, fruits, plants and mammals.
  6. 6. Birds, hunting, crocodiles, dolphins, fishes and fishing.
  7. 7. Fauna (last part), poisons and antidote, arms used by Indians for hunting and fishing.

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). Cseporán , Zsolt and Kocsis , Miklós , ‘ Az Alkotmánybíróság határozata a Magyar Muvészeti Akadémiáról. A muvészet szabadsága és pluralitása ’ (Decision of the Constitutional Court on Hungarian Academy of Arts: Freedom and plurality of arts) ( 2014 ) 4

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Hilda 1997 : Pulszky Ferenc és az iparmuvészeti mozgalmak [Ferenc Pulszky and the Applied Arts Movements]. In Pulszky Ferenc (1814-1897) emlékére [In memoriam Ferenc Pulszky (1814–1897)] . Eds: L ACZKÓ , Ibolya – S ZABÓ , Júlia – T ÓTHNÉ

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Research production in the arts and humanities

A questionnaire study of factors influencing research performance

Authors: S. Hemlin and M. Gustafsson


This study explored the main factors influencing the research production in the arts and humanities. A questionnaire was constructed to identify and assess the effects of various factors important for the productivity of the individual researcher as reflected in the number of papers and Ph.D.'s produced. First, respondents were given the opportunity to list in their own words a number of important factors influencing research productivity. Secondly, they evaluated on rating scales the importance of a number of pre-selected factors (e.g. individual characteristics, organisational features, external factors) assumed to be important for research productivity. 50% of a sample of 256 researchers in the humanities responded. Ratings were grouped to produce a number of indices and these were subject to multiple regression analyses. The main results showed that the production of papers was predicted by the number of Ph.D.'s produced and inversely related to the importance of organisational factors. The production of Ph.D.'s was dependent on the year of the Ph.D. and the position of the respondent as well as on the number of papers s/he produced. A number of conclusions were drawn: a) there was support for the academic social position effect also in the humanities; b) organisational factors apparently played a minor role in comparison to individual characteristics in the humanities than in the sciences and; c) the differences in productivity of papers were also related to gender, but not to size, area or language of publications. Implications for further studies were suggested.

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. Celestia Arts, Berkeley CA, 1990, 73–74. Arms S. Breastfeeding: Getting Breastfeeding Right for You 1990

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The article gives a review of the main results of a research project on the job opportunities of arts and social science graduates in companies in four Western European countries. It deals particularly with comparing the factors in these countries which contribute to the graduates' success when applying for their first job after graduation and the reasons for having a position on an appropriate level with high income after several years of employment.

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The third Earl of Shaftesbury accorded a political mission to the arts capable of evoking rational moral visions in an enlightened public that have learnt to trust their natural moral sense and sociability. His rational, neo-classicist art theory contains a program for the education of taste leading to the experience of the plastic truth of artworks and to aesthetic pleasure in their natural simplicity. The family portrait paintings and the engraved emblematic frontispieces to Characteristicks,commissioned by Shaftesbury, relied on a particular form of cooperation between patron and artist. The nine engravings present a visual argument for the freedom of thought, the last of which is shown to refer to Locke's unpublished Defence of Nonconformity. The reconstruction of Shaftesbury's ‘virtuoso’ knowledge and classicist art theory is set against Karl Mannheim's sociological theory of connoisseurship.

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This paper explores the portraits of a number of Tarsia family members who served as dragomans to the Venetian Republic in the late 17th century. The portraits are currently kept in the Koper Museum in Slovenia. In this study I consider dragomans as cultural intermediaries; just like commercial brokers and religious converts, dragomans historically occupied the contact zones where different cultures met and clashed. Dragomans can be considered “trans-imperial” subjects because they straddled political, linguistic and cultural boundaries between empires, in this case the Ottoman Empire and Venice. This professional group also pioneered the introduction of new customs and manners in the field of culture and arts. This study explores dragomans as clients and patrons of artists, an aspect with emerged as a part and parcel of their role as influential cultural intermediaries in the early modern Mediterranean. Portraits of Tarsia family members are among the earliest known to have been commissioned by dragomans. The patronage extended by such families of dragomans as the Tarsias demonstrates their social standing. These portraits exemplify the active role of dragomans as powerful cultural agents and serve as documentary evidence of the manners, dress codes, and professional symbols of dragomans.

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social and pedagogical intervention, associated with the international trends, has been manifested as participatory action research and arts-based research (ABR), making an impact upon traditional theatre art and the social sciences as well ( Leavy, 2015

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Roma people are often depicted in Central European literature and fine arts in the end of the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century. The topic was likely chosen not only because of an ethnographical interest, but also because orientalism in the nineteenth century meant for several Austrian artists the depiction of the life and customs of Hungarian and Transylvanian gypsies, who were believed to be originally from the East. In the second half of the century August Pettenkofen, who had often visited the town of Szolnok in the Great Hungarian Plain with his painter friends, also turned to the ‘exotic’ life of Hungarian peasants, csikós (horse-herdsmen) and nomadic gypsies. The artists of genre artworks depicting the folk, a genre flourishing in Hungary since the middle of the nineteenth century, also often choose the life and customs of Roma people as the topic of their art, usually presenting them in a detailed way and using stereotypes.

This study examines a different kind of depiction of Roma people in the nineteenth century in literature, artworks and music. The so-called ‘Three gypsies’ topic is currently believed to have appeared for the first time in 1836 in Ferenc Pongrácz’s painting, however, it became truly popular because of Nikolaus Lenau’s poem, which had a title similar to the painting’s and was published soon after the painting. The topic appears in several contemporary paintings and illustrations, and Ferenc Liszt also created a musical composition based on it. Lenau’s poem and the artworks inspired by it include a certain symbolical-philosophical approach instead of the ethnographic interest popular at the time or the anecdotical depiction of the everyday life of Roma people. The image of the three gypsies in the poem and the artworks and illustrations – the first one is playing a fiddle, the second one is smoking a pipe and the third one is sleeping – symbolizes not only the longing for a poor but free life without the yoke of social norms, but also illustrates different attitudes and philosophies of life (vita activa, vita contemplativa, turning away from the world).

The symbolical-philosophical nature of the poem and the artworks is emphasized by a significant part of these works, the motif of the instrument hung upon a tree, which first appears in Psalm 137 from the Old Testament. The psalm depicts the pain of the Jews suffering in the Babylonian captivity, who in their sorrow hung their harps upon the willows. The song about the sadness felt because of their exile and the loss of their home was later interpreted in the context of those times. The heartbreaking description of the destroyed home of the exiled Jews in János Thordai’s psalm written in the seventeenth century was likely inspired by the grief caused by the destruction of Hungary during the Ottoman rule. The motif of the instruments hung upon the tree, earlier related to society and nation, was enriched with new, individualistic meanings during the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century.

The depictions of the atypical Three gypsies topic in literature and fine arts are more closely related to allegorical paintings from earlier centuries, for example Giorgone’s The Three Philosophers or The Three Ages of Man, than to the genre artworks in the nineteenth century depicting the life of Roma people in an anecdotal way.

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