Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used to extract shionone from Aster tataricus L. f. The effect of various parameters, i.e., temperature, pressure and sample particle size on yield was investigated with an analytical-scale SFE system to find the optimal conditions. The process was then scaled up by 50 times with a preparative SFE system under the optimized conditions of temperature 40 °C, pressure 30 MPa, and a sample particle size of 40–60 mesh. Then preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography was successfully used for isolation and purification of shionone from the SFE extract with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-methanol (2:1, volume ratio). The separation produced a total of 75 mg of shionone from 500 mg of the crude extract in one step separation with the purity of 98.7%, respectively, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 92% recovery. The structure of shionone was identified by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR).
Carvalho, L.M., P.M. Correia, I. Cacador and M.A. Martins-Loucao. 2003. Effect of salinity and flooding on the infectivity of salt marsch mycorrhizal fungi in
Biol. Fertil Soils
Topographic masses have a strong impact on the medium and short wavelength components of the gravitational signal generated by the mass of the Earth, thus digital terrain models (DTM) are routinely involved in gravity field modelling. In this study the verification of the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM) which is a joint product of METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan) and NASA has been done by comparing them to the points of the horizontal and vertical control networks of Hungary. SRTM data fit better to geodetic ground control points than ASTER GDEM, since some artefacts have been found in ASTER elevation set which impede further use of the latter without any pre-processing. Since SRTM is an “unclassified” surface model including all those points which reflected the scanning radar signal thus tree canopy height has been compared to the differences of SRTM and DTM elevations in a hilly test area in Hungary where a local and accurate DTM having 20 m × 20 m horizontal resolution was available. Considerable agreement was indicated between forest height and model differences. Model differences were evaluated to determine their effect synthetically on gravity related quantities. Their influence on geoid height is insignificant, but the change of the investigated second derivatives of the potential is considerable.
Many halophytes and halophilic microorganisms are capable to adapt to the extremities of saline habitats. This study reveals the taxonomic diversity and ecological tolerance of bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of three different halophytes (Bolboschoenus maritimus, Puccinellia limosa and Aster tripolium) living in the vicinity of Kiskunság soda ponds. Following a sampling in September 2013, altogether 76 bacterial strains were isolated using two different media. The strains were identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing following ARDRA grouping. Salt and pH tolerance of the strains were examined by measuring their growth in broths containing 0–15% NaCl (w/V) and characterized with pH 7–12 values. Among the strains genera of Anaerobacillus, Bacillus and Exiguobacterium (Firmicutes), Agromyces, Isoptericola, Microbacterium, Micrococcus, Nocardiopsis, Nesterenkonia and Streptomyces (Actinobacteria), Halomonas and Idiomarina (Proteobacteria) and Anditalea (Bacteroidetes) were identified. The Bolboschoenus and Puccinellia samples characterized with the highest pH and electric conductivity values were dominated by Bacillus, Halomonas and Nesterenkonia, respectively. The salt tolerance of the bacterial strains was strongly dependent on the sampling location and plant species. In contrast, growth of bacterial strains in broths with alkaline pH values was more balanced. The strains from the Puccinellia sample showed the widest salt and pH tolerance.
Dominant halophytes, such
Plantago maritima, Aster tripolium, Artemisia santonicum, Puccinellia
limosa, Festuca pseudovina
for their colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for two vegetation
periods, sampled by monthly frequency. Two saline sites (A: Apaj-puszta and Z:
Zabszék) were selected for the survey due to their similar physical and
chemical soil characteristics (including the salt level and salt specific
anions) and the distinct site use (pasturing or not) or water regime (as
drought or temporally flooded at the vicinity of the Zabszék lake). Colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal
fungi greatly depended on the plant species and their physiological status,
such as the mycotroph or non-mycotroph character. In this respect the highest
mycorrhizal intensity (M%) and arbusculum richness (A%) was found on the
was the less dependent species on
mycorrhiza fungi. A characteristic
seasonal dynamism was found at both saline sites, for all sampled halophytes. A
maximum mycorrhizal colonization was recorded in late spring and early summer,
when there was an increased plant-physiological initiative
for the helpful symbiosis (i.e. intensive vegetative and/or generative phases
of the hosts). The rate of fungal
intensity in the root system (M%), and especially the arbusculum richness (A%)
on the other hand was found to be dependent on the site use and the water
fluctuation in the soils. A more versatile dynamism of the mycorrhizal
colonization was found therefore at the vicinity of the Zabszek lake with the
permanent water fluctuations. Under more drought stressed conditions an
increased mycorrhizal colonization and functioning (arbusculum richness) was
found, generally preceeding the high environmental stress, which was
deleterious for both symbiont partners. Such mycorrhizal dynamism in the
rhizosphere, however, seems to be a common strategy between the hosts and the
microsymbionts in the “struggle for life” process in the Hungarian steppe.
Pressure-volume (p-V) analysis, instantaneous transpiration rate and relevant leaf structural information were used to compare leaf water relations for 23 angiosperm species from semiarid temperate loess-, sand- and saline steppe grasslands and several associated habitats representing a water availability gradient. For the species studied, the most marked differences occurred between grasses and dicots. Grasses in our survey possessed low (highly negative) osmotic potential both at water saturation and at turgor loss, moderate transpiration rate, relatively high leaf dry matter proportion (DMP) and - except for the sclerophyllous Festuca species - high specific leaf area (SLA, area per unit dry mass). In contrast, dicots had lower bulk tissue elasticity, higher (less negative) osmotic potentials, intense transpiration, and lower SLA andDMP than grasses. Therefore, grasses mainly invest in osmotic potential to extract water from drying soil, while dicots rely on relatively inelastic tissue that decreases water potential by a rapid drop of turgor with turgor loss occurring at relatively high water content. Habitat effects were significant for osmotic parameters only. Osmotic potential at full turgor and at turgor loss decreased in the following order: loess grassland ? sand grassland ??saline grassland ? loess wall. Life form influenced leaf structure only, since annuals possessed markedly higher SLA and lower DMP than perennials. Comparison of habitat specialist species within the same genus revealed that certain congeners (Achillea and Aster spp.) do not differ significantly in leaf water relations, thus they might rely on similar water supply in the three steppes. Other congeners (Festuca, Kochia and Plantago spp.) differed considerably, thus for these plants leaf function and structure must be different to ensure survival under the contrasting water regime. For the two generalist grasses (Cynodon dactylon and Dactylis glomerata) habitat-specific populations showed a tendency of increasing capacity for water extraction from soil (more negative water potential) with increasing habitat dryness, although differences were significant only between the extremes of the water availability gradient.