The fundamental parameters method (FPM) for X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has been applied to determine the MN, Cr and Sr components of aluminium wires and sheets. The results are compared with neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The FPM does not require standards, however, it requires the spectra of the pure element for the concentration determination.
Authors:P. Akhter, S. Orfi, D. Mohammad, H. Kawamura, and N. Ahmad
Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) have been used for the determination of trace amounts of thorium, zinc, and potassium in diet samples. Interlaboratory comparison has been made. The z-scores show that INAA can be used to determine thorium and zinc whereas AAS can be employed to determine potassium in diet samples.
The theory of the double dilution method is shortly described. Critical volume of the liquid specimen has been determined. Optimal specimen concentration ratios of the sample in a given diluent have been examined. The validity and precision of the method have also been investigated. The usefulness of the method has been confirmed by analyzing a typical coin of Thailand. Good agreement with atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) is obtained.
Authors:L. Moens, P. Roos, J. De Rudder, J. Hoste, P. De Paepe, J. Van Hende, R. Marechal, and M. Waelkens
In 94 marble samples from 4 quarry districts in Italy (Carrara) and Turkey (Proconnesus, Dokimeion, Usak), minor and trace elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The maximum size of the calcite grains (MGS) of the rocks was measured in thin section. For 16 elements considered in this work, the concentration ranges show important inter-district overlaps; this also applies to the maximum grain size. However, the application of cluster analysis, using selected attributes, allows one to discriminate every pair of districts; 90 samples are classified correctly in all classification dendrograms.
Chromium, iron and copper were determined in niobium by radiochemical proton activation analysis (PAA). The main steps of
the technique involved the irradiation of the samples with 13 MeV protons, the post-irradiation decontamination of the sample
surface, a two-step separation procedure based on anion exchange from HF and HCl medium, and counting the separated indicator
radionuclides with a well-type NaI detector. For a 5-hr irradiation, limits of detection for chromium, iron, and copper were
0.2, 5.0, and 15 ppb respectively. The results obtained by this technique are compared with data obtained by radiochemical
neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS).
Neutron activation analysis (NAA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and ion chromatography (IC) were used for the chemical characterization of airborne particulate matter in Santiago, Chile. The PM10 mass and elemental concentration were higher in the winter than in the summer collection period. Analytical quality assessment for NAA, XRF, PIXE, AAS and IC was performed on some samples. Correlations were found between the elements Pb–Br, Si–Ca–Fe, As–Cu–S and also between the fine mass and black carbon concentrations, which could be associated with some relevant sources.
Authors:Anna Vesterlund, Annika Tovedal, Ulrika Nygren, and Henrik Ramebäck
Chemical yield determination can be a limiting source to the combined standard uncertainty in measurements of radionuclides.
Therefore, the combined standard uncertainties in yield determination in the measurement of radioactive strontium using two
methods were evaluated. The two methods compared were the measurement of stable strontium by atomic absorption spectrometry
(AAS) and the gamma spectrometric measurement of 85Sr. The evaluation showed that using gamma spectrometry for yield determination can reduce the combined standard uncertainty
by a factor of three compared to AAS. The expanded uncertainties of AAS and gamma spectrometry were calculated to be 10% and
3.3% (k = 2), respectively.
Authors:Yong Chung, Young Chung, Kyung Cho, and Joung Lee
Trace and toxic elements in Certified Reference Material (CRM) made of Korean rice at the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science have been analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Data intercomparison from the measurement with those of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Induced Coupled Plasma Spectrometry (ICPS) has been studied. The powdered samples were sterilized at 1.5·106 rad in the bottles using a60Co source after sieving and spiking to specific elements such as As, Cd, Cr, Cu and Hg and then the homogeneity of samples was assessed. Rice flour (SRM 1568a) and standard solutions made by the National Institute of Standards Technology (NIST) were used to construct the calibration curves for the INAA and the chemical methods, respectively. The uncertainties and concentration of constituent elements were determined and the possibility of their use for analytical quality control was considered.
The deposition of trace and major elements from the atmosphere to the ground is an important factor for plants, animals and
humans as well. Total suspended particulate matter was measured by a standard gravimetric technique. A scanning electron microscope
was used for the evaluation of the size distribution and morphological structures of the aerosol particulates trapped on the
surface of filter paper. The aerosol particulates were studied by a scanning electron microscope at various magnification.
The trace elemental composition in the atmosphere of Faisalabad was studied by using instrumental neutron activation analysis
(INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Concentrations of 23 trace elements and a major one were determined in samples
of aerosol particulates collected during a longe sampling period in the atmosphere at Faisalabad, Pakistan. Their amount was
two times higher than the limits adopted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the urban environment.
The natural radioactivity concentration and some heavy metals in various water and soil samples collected from seismically
active area have been determined. Gross-alpha and beta concentrations of different 33 water samples and some heavy metal (Fe,
Pb, Cu, K, Mn, Cr and Zn) concentration in 72 soil samples collected from two major fault systems (North and East Anatolian
Active Fault Systems) in Turkey have been studied. This survey regarding gross-alpha and beta radioactivity and some heavy
metals concentrations was carried out by means of Krieger method using a gross-alpha and beta-counting system and atomic absorption
spectrometry (AAS), respectively. Also, gross annual effective dose from the average gross-alpha activity in waters were calculated.