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Abstract  

Batch sorption experiments were performed to remove Eu(III) ions from aqueous solutions by using attapulgite under ambient conditions. Different experimental conditions, such as contact time, solid content, foreign ions, pH, ionic strength, fulvic acid and temperature, have been investigated to study their effect on the sorption property. The results indicated that the sorption of Eu(III) onto attapulgite was strongly dependent on pH, ionic strength and temperature. The sorption increased from about 8.9 to 90% at pH ranging from 2 to 6 in 0.01 mol/L NaNO3 solution. The Eu(III) kinetic sorption on attapulgite was fitted by the pseudo-second-order model better than by the pseudo-first-order model. The sorption of Eu(III) onto attapulgite increased with increasing temperature and decreasing ionic strength. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to simulate the sorption isotherms, and the results indicated that the Freundlich model simulated the data better than the Langmuir model. The thermodynamic parameters (∆G o, ∆S o, ∆H o) were determined from the temperature dependent isotherms at 298.15, 318.15 and 338.15 K, and the results indicated that the sorption reaction was an endothermic and spontaneous process. The results suggest that the attapulgite is a suitable material as an adsorbent for preconcentration and immobilization of Eu(III) from aqueous solutions.

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Abstract  

Sorption of radionickel on attapulgite is studied as a function of contact time, ionic strength, pH and temperature. The results indicate that the sorption of Ni(II) on attapulgite is strongly ionic strength-dependent at pH <8, and independent of ionic strength at pH >8. Outer-sphere surface complexation or ion exchange contributes to Ni(II) sorption on attapulgite at pH <8, whereas the sorption of Ni(II) is mainly dominated by inner-sphere surface complexation at pH >8. The sorption of Ni(II) on attapulgite increases with increasing temperature, and the thermodynamic parameters (ΔH 0, ΔG 0 and ΔS 0) calculated from the temperature dependent sorption isotherms suggest that the sorption of Ni(II) on attapulgite is a spontaneous and endothermic process. The high sorption capacity of attapulgite suggests that attapulgite is a suitable material for the preconcentration and solidification of radionickel from large volumes of aqueous solutions.

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Abstract  

Chitosan-coated attapulgite beads were prepared by coating chitosan on naturally and abundantly available attapulgite, and made into spherical beads to adsorb uranium from aqueous solutions. The beads were characterized by SEM, EDS and FT-IR. The characteristics of beads of adsorbing uranium(VI) from aqueous solutions were studied at different conditions of pH, initial uranium concentration, contact time, biomass dosage and temperature. The pseudo-second order rate equation was used to describe the kinetic data, and isotherm data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS°) of the biosorption were also calculated. Thermodynamic parameters of the CAAB, viz., ΔG°(308 K), ΔH°, and ΔS° were determined to be −21.59, 6.29l and 90.51 J/mol K, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the beads of chitosan coated onto attapulgite exhibit considerable potential for application in both adsorption and removal of uranium from aqueous solutions.

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Abstract  

Attapulgite has been applied in the sorption of metal and radionuclide ions since its discovery. Herein, radionuclide Am(III) sorption onto attapulgite was carried out at 25 °C in 0.01 mol/L NaNO3 solutions. Effects of contact time, Am(III) initial concentration, pH, humic acid and temperature on Am(III) sorption onto attapulgite were investigated. The sorption of Am(III) increases with increasing contact time and reaches a maximum value within 24 h at different Am(III) initial concentration. The fast sorption velocity indicates that strong chemical sorption or strong surface complexation contributes to the sorption of Am(III) onto attapulgite under the experimental conditions. The experimental data can be described well by the pseudo-second-order rate model. The sorption of Am(III) onto attapulgite is strongly dependent on pH values and surface complexation is the main sorption mechanism. The presence of HA enhances the sorption of Am(III) onto attapulgite at pH < 8.5, whereas, at pH > 8.5, little effect of HA on Am(III) sorption is observed. The Langmuir, Freundlich and D-R models were used to simulate the sorption data at different pH values and the results indicated that Langmuir model simulates the experimental data better than Freundlich and D-R models. The thermodynamic parameters indicates that the sorption of Am(III) onto attapulgite is an endothermic and spontaneous process. The results suggest that the attapulgite is a suitable material as an adsorbent for preconcentration and immobilization of Am(III) from aqueous solutions.

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Abstract  

The ammonium citrate tribasic was successfully modified to attapulgite clay and the effect of modifying was characterized by FTIR and XRD techniques. Experimental results showed that the ammonium citrate tribasic modified attapulgite clay had a strong sorption ability to remove Th(IV) from aqueous solutions. The sorption of Th(IV) from aqueous solutions has been systematically investigated as a function of several variables including contact time, solid content, pH, ionic strength, Fulvic acid (FA)/humic acid (HA) and temperature under ambient conditions. The results indicate that the sorption of Th(IV) onto ammonium citrate tribasic modified attapulgite clay is strongly dependent on pH, Th(IV) initial concentration, ionic strength, temperature and HA/FA. Surface complexation and ionic exchange are the main sorption mechanisms. Sorption of Th(IV) onto ammonium citrate tribasic modified attapulgite is quick and can be fitted by a pseudo-second-order rate model very well. Sorption of Th(IV) onto ammonium citrate tribasic modified attapulgite is promoted at higher temperature and the sorption reaction is an endothermic process. Langmuir isotherm model fits the experimental data better than Freundlich and D-R isotherm models. The results suggest that the ammonium citrate tribasic modified attapulgite sample is a suitable material in the preconcentration and solidification of radionuclide Th(IV) from large volumes of aqueous solutions.

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Abstract  

The sorption of UO2 2+ from aqueous solution on attapulgite was investigated as a function of contact time, solid content, pH, ionic strength, foreign ions, humic acid (HA), and fulvic acid (FA) under ambient conditions by using batch technique. The attapulgite sample was characterized by XRD and FTIR in detail. The results indicated that the sorption of UO2 2+ was strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength. The sorption of UO2 2+ on attapulgite increased quickly with rising pH at pH < 6.5, and decreased with increasing pH at pH > 6.5. The presence of HA or FA enhanced the sorption of UO2 2+ on attapulgite obviously at low pH because of the strong complexation of surface adsorbed HA/FA with UO2 2+ on attapulgite surface. Sorption of UO2 2+ on attapulgite was mainly dominated by ion-exchange or outer-sphere surface complexation at low pH values, but by inner-sphere surface complexation at high pH values. The results indicate that attapulgite is a very suitable adsorbent for the preconcentration and solidification of UO2 2+ from large volumes of aqueous solutions because of its negative surface charge and large surface areas.

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Abstract  

Sorption of U(VI) from aqueous solution to Na-attapulgite was investigated at different experimental chemistry conditions by using batch technique. The attapulgite sample was characterized by FTIR and XRD. Sorption of U(VI) on attapulgite was strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength. The sorption of U(VI) on attapulgite increased quickly with rising pH at pH < 6, and decreased with increasing pH at pH > 7. The presence of humic acid (HA) enhanced the sorption of U(VI) on attapulgite obviously at low pH because of the strong complexation of surface adsorbed HA with U(VI) on attapulgite surface. Sorption of U(VI) on attapulgite was mainly dominated by ion exchange and/or outer-sphere surface complexation at low pH values, whereas the sorption was attributed to the inner-sphere surface complexation or precipitation at high pH values. The sorption increased with increasing temperature and the thermodynamic parameters calculated from the temperature dependent sorption isotherms suggested that the sorption of U(VI) on attapulgite was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The results indicate that attapulgite is a very suitable material for the preconcentration of U(VI) ions from large volumes of aqueous solutions.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Veronika Vágvölgyi, Lisa Daniel, Caroline Pinto, J. Kristóf, R. Frost, and Erzsébet Horváth

Abstract  

The thermal decomposition of the clay mineral attapulgite has been studied using a combination of dynamic and controlled rate thermal analysis. In the dynamic experiment two dehydration steps are observed over the 20–114 and 114–201°C temperature range. In the dynamic experiment three dehydroxylation steps are observed over the temperature ranges 201–337, 337–638 and 638–982°C. The CRTA technology enables the separation of the thermal decomposition steps. Calculations show the amount of water in the attapulgite mineral is variable. Dehydration in the CRTA experiment occurs as quasi-isothermal equilibria. Dehydroxylation occurs as a series of non-isothermal decomposition steps. CRTA technology offers better resolution and a more detailed interpretation of the decomposition processes of a clay mineral such as attapulgite via approaching equilibrium conditions of decomposition through the elimination of the slow transfer of heat to the sample as a controlling parameter on the process of decomposition. Constant-rate decomposition processes of non-isothermal nature reveal partial collapse of the layers of attapulgite as the attapulgite is converted to an anhydride.

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Abstract  

The sorption of Co(II) on Na-attapulgite as a function of contact time, solid content, pH, ionic strength, foreign ions, fulvic acid (FA) and temperature under ambient conditions was studied. The kinetic of Co(II) sorption on Na-attapulgite was described well by pseudo-second-order model. The sorption of Co(II) on Na-attapulgite was strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength. The sorption of Co(II) was mainly dominated by outer-sphere surface complexation and/or ion exchange at low pH, whereas inner-sphere surface complexation or surface precipitation was the main sorption mechanism at high pH values. The presence of FA did not affect Co(II) sorption obviously at pH <7, and a negative effect was observed at pH >7. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to simulate the sorption data at different temperatures, and the results indicated that the Langmuir model simulated the data better than the Freundlich isotherm model. The thermodynamic parameters (∆G°, ∆S°, ∆H°) calculated from the temperature-dependent sorption isotherms indicated that the sorption of Co(II) on Na-attapulgite was an endothermic and spontaneous process. The results suggest that the attapulgite sample is a suitable material in the preconcentration and solidification of radiocobalt from large volumes of aqueous solutions.

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Abstract  

In this work, the influence of attapulgite concentration on the nucleating efficiency of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and on the kinetics of non-isothermal crystallization were ascertained.The study was conducted by DSC. The nucleating efficiency was determined according to the procedure described by Fillon and the kinetics of non-isothermal crystallization was determined using Ozawa's method using cooling rates of 2, 5 and 10C min−1.Our results indicate that both the relative crystallinity and the crystallization temperature increase with filler content and that a maximum occurs at 2% mass/mass filler content. Both parameters decrease with increasing cooling rates. The Ozawa's exponent tended to increase with temperature and filler content.

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