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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors: A. Kamalakannan, L. Mohan, K. Kavitha, S. Harish, R. Radjacommare, S. Nakkeeran, V. K. Parthiban, R. Karuppiah and T. Angayarkanni

Five isolates of Trichoderma viride, Pseudomonas fluorescens and four isolates of Bacillus subtilis were evaluated for their ability to control Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of stem and stolon rot of peppermint (Mentha piperita Lin.). Of the various isolates of T. viride, P. fluorescens and B. subtilis tested, TVUV10, PFMMP and BSG3 showed the maximum inhibition of mycelial growth of R. solani. Among these isolates, P. fluorescens, PFMMP recorded the highest inhibition zone against R. solani in vitro and was very effective in reducing disease incidence in greenhouse condition. The effective isolates were evaluated for their ability to induce defense related enzymes and chemicals in plants. Increased activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), peroxidase (PO), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and total phenolics were recorded in the biocontrol agents pretreated peppermint plants challenged with R. solani. P. fluorescens isolate PFMMP recorded early and increased synthesis of all defense related enzymes and total phenol. Thus, the present study shows that application of biocontrol agents; induce defense related enzymes involved in phenyl propanoid pathway in addition to direct antagonism which collectively contribute for enhanced resistance against invasion of R. solani in M. piperita.

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Application of microcalorimetry and chemometric analysis

Effects evaluation of angle and nail animal drugs on Bacillus subtilis growth

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Xiaoyan Xing, Yanling Zhao, Weijun Kong, Yanwei Zhong, Dan Yan, Ping Zhang, Yumei Han, Lei Jia, Cheng Jin and Xiaohe Xiao

effects of angle and nail animal valuable drugs including Cornu Cervi Pantotrichum , Cornu Cervi Elaphi , Cornu Saigae Tataricae , cornu caprae hircus , Cornu Bubali , Squama Manis , and Carapax Trionycis on B. subtilis growth were studied using

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therapy. Then, if there is no need to pay attention to its safety while taking CUR or if there is any clause that we have to follow when it comes to drug combination? Bacillus subtilis ( B. subtilis ), which is commonly found in soil and

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, D. , F ox , K.F. , B lack , G.E. & F ox , A. ( 1995 ): Discrimination among the B. cereus group, in comparison to B. subtilis, by structural carbohydrate profiles and ribosomal RNA spacer region PCR . Syst. Appl. Microbiol. , 17 ( 4

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cereus , and Streptococcus pneumoniae . We have critically analyzed the QS system in these four species, because S. aureus, B. cereus , and S. pneumoniae are considered to be potent human pathogen, and B. subtilis is recognized as an industrially

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northern Syria . Aust. J. Agric. Res. 48 , 1 – 7 . Wulff , E. G. , Mguni , C. M. , Mansfeld-Giese , K. , Fels , J. , Lübeck , M. and Hockenhull , J. ( 2002 ): Biochemical and molecular characterization of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Wesam I. A. Saber, Khalid M. Ghoneem, Abdulaziz A. Al-Askar, Younes M. Rashad, Abeer A. Ali and Ehsan M. Rashad

Stem canker and black scurf of potato, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, can be serious diseases causing an economically significant damage. Biocontrol activity of Bacillus subtilis ATCC 11774 against the Rhizoctonia diseases of potato was investigated in this study. Chitinase enzyme was optimally produced by B. subtilis under batch fermentation conditions similar to those of the potato-growing soil. The maximum chitinase was obtained at initial pH 8 and 30 °C. In vitro, the lytic action of the B. subtilis chitinase was detected releasing 355 μg GlcNAc ml−1 from the cell wall extract of R. solani and suggesting the presence of various chitinase enzymes in the bacterial filtrate. In dual culture test, the antagonistic behavior of B. subtilis resulted in the inhibition of the radial growth of R. solani by 48.1% after 4 days. Moreover, the extracted B. subtilis chitinase reduced the growth of R. solani by 42.3% when incorporated with the PDA plates. Under greenhouse conditions, application of a bacterial suspension of B. subtilis at 109 cell mL−1 significantly reduced the disease incidence of stem canker and black scurf to 22.3 and 30%, respectively. In addition, it significantly improved some biochemical parameters, growth and tubers yield. Our findings indicate two points; firstly, B. subtilis possesses a good biocontrol activity against Rhizoctonia diseases of potato, secondly, the harmonization and suitability of the soil conditions to the growth and activity of B. subtilis guaranteed a high controlling capacity against the target pathogen.

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concentrations (5 mg L −1 ) only. Using B. subtilis bacteria: MCNZ and its metal complexes are found to have antibacterial activity against B. subtillis bacteria (an example of G − negative bacteria), and the activity is found to have the order: Fe(III) > Ni

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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors: S. Mathiyazhagan, K. Kavitha, G. Chandrasekar, S. Nakkeeran, K. Manian, A. S. Krishnamoorthy, A. Sankaralingam and W. G. D. Fernando

The commercial cultivation of Phyllanthus amarus (Schum and Thonn) has led to the outbreak of stem blight caused by Corynespora cassiicola (Berk and Curt) Wei. Infection of C. cassiicola is reported on P. amarus for the first time. C. cassiicola produced glycoproteinaceous toxin responsible for the symptoms simirlarly produced by the pathogen. B. subtilis (CBE4), P. chlororaphis (PA23), endophytic P. fluorescens (ENPF1)  and T. viride (Tv-MNT7) degraded the toxin of C. cassiicola.

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The main purpose of this study was to determine optimum conditions for culture of a test microbe Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633) which enabled us to establish its use for direct bioautography. The viability of the bacteria on TLC plates was measured on the basis of their adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) content as determined by bioluminescent luciferin/luciferase assay, the data being referred to values for total bacterial protein. In the first experiments, we used a ‘20-h’ culture of B. subtilis prepared by dilution of an optical density ( OD ) ≫ 0.4 culture to furnish a culture of OD = 0.4 (Method A). Later, on the basis of our optimization experiments we found that a ‘5–9-h’ broth culture of B. subtilis was suitable. Under these conditions the bacteria remained in the log phase ( OD = 0.2–0.4) for 5–9 h (Method B) in immersion bacterial suspension. Because the test bacteria were in the log phase a much shorter incubation time (4–8 h) was sufficient for TLC plates instead of the original 18 h in a previous study. One advantage of this method, in addition to the shorter incubation time, is that we can use TLC plates coated with adsorbents other than silica.

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