Brown planthopper (BPH) is one of the destructive insect pests causing significant yield losses in rice. BPH causes direct damage to the rice plants by sucking the sap from phloem, causing hopper burn and transmitting viral diseases like grassy and ragged stunt viruses. Several resistant donors have been identified from time to time, but the new biotypes of the pest arise to defeat the extended use of resistance genes in a single variety. This necessitates the regular identification of new resistant donors along with their nature of inheritance and gene action controlling the resistance. Knowing the inheritance pattern, gene action and number of genes controlling a trait helps the plant breeders to plan the effective breeding approaches for crop improvement. The present investigation was hence carried out to know the inheritance pattern, gene action and number of genes controlling BPH resistance in newly identified sources. The results indicated that the BPH resistance in PHS 29 genotype is under the control of single recessive gene. Whereas, it is controlled by two recessive genes in MRST 3 genotype. This reveals that relatively higher population size will be required to recover desirable segregants in the segregating populations involving MRST 3 genotype as one of the parents as compared to that involving PHS 29 genotype as parent. Since, the resistance in both the cases being recessive in nature, the trait will hence show significant additive effect, indicating that pure line development will be desirable for improvement of such a trait.
., 1984 ). Its growth and size depend on the age, breed and body size of the dog and are mediated by testosterone ( Ruel et al., 1998; Cunto et al., 2019 ). Canine benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common age-related diseases in adult
Authors:Ł Dobrek, A Baranowska, B Skowron, A Furgała, D Żurowski, and P Thor
applicability. Rev. Bras. Cir. Cardiovasc. 24 , 205 – 217 ( 2009 )
41. Ventura S , Oliver VL , White CW , Xie JH , Haynes JM , Exintaris B : Novel drug targets for the pharmacotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Br. J
Authors:M. Ali, Salem Alghamdi, M. Begum, A. Anwar Uddin, M. Alam, and Dingcheng Huang
In order to breed rice cultivars for resistance to the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål (BPH) in Bangladesh, were evaluated for resistance in greenhouse screening tests. Over a period of six years (2005–2010), 1,767 entries/cultivars were screened using the plant hopper screening (PHS) system. The results showed 87 donors possessing different levels of resistance to the BPH. One exotic cultivar was highly resistant to the BPH and 86 materials showed medium resistance (tolerance) to the BPH. The rest of the materials including germplasm, F2, exotic, IRBPHN (International Rice Brown Planthopper Nursery) and advanced lines were susceptible. Most of entries coming from the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) via the IRBPHN were moderately resistant.
The role of antibiosis components and antioxidant defense of rice genotypes, namely CR3006-8-2, RP4918-221, KAUM182-1, T12, IHRT-ME-25, W1263, Ptb33 (resistant check) and TN1 (susceptible check) was studied by phenotyping them against brown planthopper (BPH). Three genotypes, namely KAUM182-1, RP4918-221 and CR3006-8-2 were resistant to BPH and significantly low damage score (1.97–3.00); honeydew excretion area (46.76–49.64 mm2); nymphal survival (60.60–66.40%) and growth index (2.98–3.86) was recorded on them. Higher constitutive and induced level of soluble phenolics, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase was observed in resistant genotypes without and with BPH infestation. A negative relationship between honeydew excretion, nymphal emergence, growth index and nymphal survival was observed with these biochemical constituents. Likewise, a reverse trend was observed between nymphal development period and biochemical constituents. These genotypes have emerged as a new source of resistance to BPH which can be used in hybridization programme to breed durable BPH resistant rice varieties.
Various alkylammonium, dialkylammonium, trialkylammonium and tetraalkylammonium tetraphenylborates were prepared. The thermal
decomposition curves of RNH3BPh4, R2NH2BPh4, R3NHBPh4 and R4NBPh4 (whereR=Me, Et,n-Bu) in nitrogen atmosphere indicate that the elimination of volatile matter leads to the formation of both 1∶1 complex of
trialkylamino triphenylborane and dialkylamino diphenylborene. Further elimination of volatile matter leads to the formation
of borazine at 600–680°C. When borazine is further heated at 980–1090°C an exothermic change indicates the polycyclic condensation
of the borazine leading to the formation of boron nitride. The volatile matter evolved in these reactions was measured quantitatively
and reaction mechanisms were suggested.
Authors:E. Makrlík, J. Rais, K. Baše, J. Plešek, and P. Vaňura
Individual extraction constants of nine dicarbollylcobaltate anions in the two-phase water-nitrobenzene system were determined radiometrically assuming that the changes of Gibbs energy of the transfer of the tetraphenylarsonium cation, Ph4As+, and of the tetraphenylborate anion, BPh
, from the aqueous into the nitrobenzene phase are equal. The constants obtained by this method were correlated with Hansch's constants of hydrophobity.