Authors:Nadežda Krstić, Ljubinko Savić, Gordana Jovanović, and Elvira Bodor
Marović, M., N. Krstić, S. Stanić, V. Cvetković, M. Petrović 1999: The evolution of Neogene sedimentation provinces of central Balkanpeninsula. - Bull. Geoinst., 36, pp. 25-94, Beograd.
Mihajlović, D., N. Vasić 1995
Authors:Stevan Karamata, Dragoljub Stefanović, and Branislav Krstić
Karamata, S., N. M. Dimitrijević, M. D. Dimitrijević 1999: Oceanic realms in the central part of the BalkanPeninsula during the Mesozoic. - Slovac Geol. Mag., 5, 3, pp. 173-177, Bratislava.
Oceanic realms in the central part of
Authors:K. Berisha, H. Bytyçi, Zs. Mednyánszky, E. Kiss, and L. Simon-Sarkadi
1 Introduction Busha cattle ( Bos primigenius f. taurus ) is a characteristic cattle breed of the BalkanPeninsula. Its breeding grounds in Kosovo are mainly in hilly and mountainous areas, where other breeds can hardly survive. Two strains of the
Authors:Duško Ćirović, Ivan Pavlović, and Aleksandra Penezić
The grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) is the most widespread large carnivore in Europe with large populations in the Eastern part of Europe and the Balkan Peninsula. In this study, a total of 102 wolves were examined for intestinal helminth parasites. The carcasses were collected within the Serbian part of the wolf’s range during the period 2009–2014. Nine helminth species were found: one nematode, Toxocara canis (3.9%), one trematode, Alaria alata (1.0%), and seven cestodes, Taenia pisiformis (1.0%), T. hydatigena (9.8%), T. polyacantha (2.9%), T. taeniaeformis (2.0%), T. (syn. Multiceps) multiceps (3.9%), T. serialis (1.0%) and Mesocestoides litteratus (1.0%). Taenia (syn. Hydatigera) taeniaeformis has been registered for the first time in a wolf from Europe. An overall moderate prevalence (16.7%) of infected wolves was recorded. There was no statistically significant difference in prevalence between sexes. Of the years studied, the highest prevalence was found in 2014 (57.1%). The maximum number of helminth species per host specimen was four.
In the 16th century, there were two
in Hungary; their number increased to four at the turn of the 17th century and to six after 1660. The largest of them, the
of Buda, was loss-making throughout the period, with the exception of a few years. The Buda
received financial support from the central treasury during the 16th century and from the campaign treasury during the Long War at the turn of the 17th century. Subsequently, in the 17th century, roughly 70 per cent of its military expenditure was covered by state revenues from the Balkan Peninsula. In the latter decades of the 16th century, the Temeşvar
produced a financial surplus. It suffered financial woes during the war at the turn of the century but recovered thereafter. In the early 17th century, the Eger
used its own revenue to pay for more than half of its costs, but the losses of the Kanija
resembled those of Buda. The Varad
in the east of the country was financially self-sufficient, while the Uyvar
, established in the approaches to Vienna, was funded entirely by the central treasury. To sum up: in the stricken western
, which were devastated by the military campaigns, local revenues met no more than one third of military costs; meanwhile, the three eastern
, which were less affected by conflict, were for the most part self-sufficient.
Geographically situated some 550 kilometers southeast of Vienna and 250 kilometers southeast of Budapest, Timişoara assimilated the influences of the two former imperial capitals relatively quickly. Its European openness was facilitated by the practice of plurilingualism and multiconfessionalism. At the beginning of the 20th century, Timişoara’s population spoke five languages, namely Hungarian, German, Serbian, Romanian and Bulgarian. The main religious affiliations were Roman-Catholic, Orthodox, Greek-Catholic, Evangelic-Lutheran, Reformist-Calvinist Churches and Jewish. Interculturality and the intermingling of populations generated a very promising social culture. Analyzed from the behavioral point of view, Timişoara was an example of multi-cultural and intercultural society for two centuries, which made it possible for this center to be integrated into Europe ever since the 19th century and to represent the main link between the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy and the Balkan Peninsula. The multicultural and intercultural dimensions gave consistency to the anti-totalitarian resistance over the course of the 20th century. This was why the intellectuals in the post-Ceauşescu period defined the city’s distinctiveness with the expression “the spirit of Timişoara”.
During the last decade, three new acidophilous forests associations were detected in the Mecsek Mts (SW Hungary), and described as acidophilous beech wood (Sorbo torminalis-Fagetum (A. O. Horvát 1963) Borhidi et Kevey in Kevey 2001), acido-mesophilous oak wood (Luzulo forsteri-Quercetum petraeae (A. O. Horvát 1963) Borhidi et Kevey 1996) and acido-xerophilous oak shrubland (Genisto pilosae-Quercetum polycarpae (A. O. Horvát 1967) Borhidi et Kevey 1996). In this article two further new associations are described: the acidophilous oakwood of the Mecsek (Viscario-Quercetum polycarpae Kevey, ass. nova) and the acido-mesophilous oakwood of western Hungary (Campanulo rotundifoliae-Quercetum petraeae (Csapody 1964) Kevey, ass. nova). These associations are related to the acidophilous forests of the Balkan Peninsula based on the infrequent presence of sub-Mediterranean species. A detailed comparative study of these new associations with the earlier known ones permitted to develop a reshaped classification of the syntaxonomy of these units, creating four new suballiances: within the frame of Quercion farnetto I. Horvat 1938 the suballiances Luzulo forsteri-Quercenion polycarpae Kevey, suball. nova and the typical Quercenion farnetto Kevey, suball. nova, in the frame of Quercion petraeae Zólyomi et Jakucs 1957 the suballiances Luzulo multiflorae-Quercenion petraeae Kevey, suball. nova and the Quercenion petraeae Kevey, suball. nova.
Authors:Sándor Kovács, János Haas, Péter Ozsvárt, Ladislav A. Palinkaš, Gabriella Kiss, Ferenc Molnár, Sándor Józsa, and Szilvia Kövér
The Mesozoic complex of Darnó Hill area in NE Hungary, according to well core documentation, is made up of two units. The upper unit, the Darnó Unit s.s., consists predominantly of blocks of ophiolitic rocks (pillow and massive basalt, gabbro) and subordinate abyssal sediments (red radiolarite and red pelagic mudstone of either Ladinian-Carnian or Bathonian-Callovian age, as well as bluish-grey, sometimes blackish siliceous shale of the latter age). The basalt is geochemically of MOR type, based on earlier evaluations. However, it comes in two types: reddish or greenish amygdaloidal pillow basalts with peperitic facies containing reddish micritic limestone inclusions, and green basalts without any sedimentary carbonate inclusion. The former type is probably Middle- Triassic, advanced rifting stage-related basalt, whereas the latter is probably of Jurassic age, corresponding to the Szarvaskõ-type basalt of the western Bükk Mountains. Pre-Miocene presence of an ultramafic sheet above the complex is indicated by serpentinite pebbles in the Lower Miocene Darnó Conglomerate.
The lower unit, corresponding to the Mónosbél Unit of the western Bükk Mountains, consists of lower slope and toe-of-slope type sediments: dark grey shale and bluish-grey siliceous shale of Jurassic age, both showing distal turbiditic character, with frequently interbedded carbonate turbidites and debris flow deposits containing cm- to dm-sized limestone and micaceous sandstone clasts. One to ten m-sized slide blocks of reddish, siliceous Triassic Bódvalenke-type limestone associated with the above-mentioned reddish, amygdaloidal basalt also occur. In one of the studied cores a block comprising evaporitic siliciclastics akin to those of the Middle Permian Szentlélek Formation and black, fossiliferous limestone similar to the Upper Permian Nagyvisnyó Limestone Formation of the Bükk Mountains, was also encountered.
A preliminary comparison with similar Triassic advanced rifting-type basalt and limestone/radiolarite of the western ophiolite zone of the Balkan Peninsula is presented (Fig. 1): the Zagorje region of NW Croatia, the Zlatibor-Zlatar Mountains of SW Serbia, and the North Pindos and Othrys Mountains, as well as Euboea Island, of Northern Greece. We propose the terms “Loggitsi Basalt” for such Triassic basalt containing peperitic facies, after the village of Loggitsion located in the central part of the Othrys Mts, and “Bódvalenke Limestone” for the transitional facies between Hallstatt Limestone and Triassic red radiolarite, after the village of Bódvalenke located in the Rudabánya Hills. The northwesternmost occurrence of both of these typical Neotethyan formations can be found in NE Hungary (Darnó Hill and Bódva Unit of Rudabánya Hills, respectively).
The author discusses similes of southern Slavs (Bulgarians and peoples of the former Yugoslavia, i.e. Bosnians, Serbs, Croats, and Montenegrins) with a semantically similar component such as an anthroponym of Oriental origin. The author deals with both outdated similes and those that are actively used nowadays.
Orientalisms usually include words belonging to different groups of Turkic as well as Iranian and Arab-Semitic languages. Historical events and language contacts contributed to the borrowing of thematically diverse Orientalisms by South Slavic languages. The result of the five-century domination of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkan Peninsula is borrowing from the Old Ottoman (Old Turkish) language, which became both the source language and (often) the intermediate language through which Arabisms and Persisms entered the South Slavic recipient languages. Therefore, in Bulgaria, the term Turkish-Arabic-Persian words is used to refer to this vocabulary. In addition to the Arab-Persian elements, the old Ottoman language is rich in borrowings from other languages (e.g. Greek). The term Turkish usually refers to the vocabulary of the old Ottoman rather than the modern Turkish language. Due to the vastness of anthroponyms of Oriental origin as a special genetic layer of South Slavic vocabulary, the author analyzes the expressions that denote a person in such aspects as intelligence, gender, and occupation.
Oriental vocabulary penetrated into the languages of Southern Slavs mainly through oral spoken language. The degree of penetration of Turkish words into the languages of the peoples of Southern Slavia is different. The outcome of borrowings also varies: they either remained in the recipient languages as exoticism, or have been completely assimilated in them. During semantic adaptation in the language that accepts Oriental vocabulary, there is sometimes an expansion or contraction of the meaning of a word. Many of the Turkish words that make up the comparison became historicisms and entered the passive vocabulary and in the modern language they are not used because of the disappearance of the realities they denote (for example, words associated with the system of administration in the Ottoman era). Another reason for transition into the passive vocabulary in the Balkans is the process of replacing the original words.
The paper defines the functional, semantic, and stylistic status of Eastern vocabulary in different social and cultural layers (standard languages and dialects) of South Slavic similes. Due to historical reasons, the greatest number of borrowings from the Turkish language as a part of similes is observed in Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as in Shtokavian dialects of Croatia. In addition to this, the author gives cultural, historical, and etymological comments to similes, analyzing the meaning of units and components that are parts of similes.