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Summary

The illustrated genealogy of the Esterházys was published in 1700 on behalf of Pál Esterházy (1635–1713) the first Prince of the Family. By constructing a genealogical series going back in the past they used beside the Mausoleum of 1664 a lot of different models. In this paper copies from the Ducum Brabantiae Chronica (1600) and from the late 17th century portraits of the Ancestors' Gallery (Burg Forchtenstein) are identified. The main source of the portrait paintings was the Theatrum Pictoricum by David Teniers, a series of graphic reproductions of famous paintings in the imperial collection.

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Raimond, a törpe. Megjegyzések Carlo Palme különös képéhez (1676)

Raimond, the Dwarf. Comments on Carlo Palme's Peculiar Picture (1676)

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
László Lengyel

Abstract

The paper is concerned with a 17th century relic of French baroque painting meagerly represented in Hungarian private collections. The author has had a chance lately to directly examine the work known to Hungarian special researchers since 1966 as a work by a Spanish or French painter. As a result of the examination, the painter, the portrayed person and the client who ordered the picture could be identified. As the decoding of the that-time inscription on the back reveals, it was painted in 1676 by Carlo (Charles) Palme, an offspring of a dynasty of Lucchese painters born in Aix-en-Provence. The owner of both the painting and the portrayed person was an aristocratic lady in Aix-en-Provence, Madame de Venel born Madeleine de Gaillard de Longjumeau (1620–1688), who became known as the governess of Cardinal Mazarin's nieces Les Mazarinettes (the Mancini girls) as well as of the children of Louis XIV and the future king of Spain Philip V of the Bourbon house. The lady and her husband, Gaspard de Venel were among Mazarin's supporters. They served in the court of the queen mother Anne of Austria, then of Maria Theresa of Spain and her husband the Sun King. The full-length portrait of Raimond, the violinist with dwarfism set in a Provencale landscape is a rare artistic document of the centuries-old custom of keeping little people for entertainment at the French court, too. The wife of Louis XIV is known to have kept several dwarfs around her. The childless Madame de Venel, her lady-in-waiting had Raimond, and her husband also had a dwarf whose portrait is said by the sources to have also been painted, this time by another well-known Provencale painter Laurent Fauchier before 1672. This – now latent – painting had been kept tabs on in the collection of Madame de Venel's heirs (de Gaillard-Longjumeau line) until 1770 (in the inventory taken on 20 September 1770 it is designated: Tableaux: No. 3. Le nain de Monsieur de Venel). The Budapest painting helps clarify the relation between 17th century Provencale portraiture and the social role little people with dwarfism played in 17th century French society. The professional collaboration and the family relations of the two painter families of Aix, the Palmes and the Fauchiers, as well as their relationship with their patrons the Venel family can be discerned. But the career of another dwarf of Provence, Antoine Godeau (1605–1672), nicknamed “Le Nain de Julie”, “Le Nain de la Princesse”, a once celebrated poet, one of the founders of the French Academy, later bishop of Grasse and then Vence, proves that an achondroplasiatic body stature did not necessarily hinder social success. The Venel family who kept two dwarfs and had them portrayed by local masters chose a motto for the picturesque decoration of their residence in Aix from the love poetry of the dwarf poet: “Allez amours, à tire d'aile”. The up-to-date elaboration of the Aix portrait painter Carlo Palme is still a task to be done, but the portrait of Raimond, the dwarf of Madame de Venel dated 1676 now in Hungary can be ranged among the early pieces in his oeuvre.

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Barokk festmények a vasvári domonkos templomban és kolostorban

Baroque Paintings in the Dominican Church and Monastery of Vasvár

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
Monika Zsámbéky

Abstract

The Dominican church of Vasvár is dedicated to the Apotheosis of the Holy Cross. Its ground-plan and walls preserve its medieval state. The church and convent were fortified in the Ottoman times, but in the mid-16th century they fell into ruin and the monks left. After several owners the building – the residence of troops for some time – was purchased by György Széchényi, archbishop of Kalocsa and restored to the Dominican order in 1684. The monks moved back into the rebuilt convent in 1690. The reconstruction of the church and monastery lasted up to the 1750s. Several pictures of the baroque furnishing of the complex survive; these are presented in the paper.

The capture of St John of Nepomuk was the altar picture of a baroque side altar removed from church use in the early 20th century. A major cult evolved around the figure of the martyred 14th century canon of Prague in Central Europe and the Habsburg Empire in the 17–18th century. The main episodes of his life and martyrdom are repres-ented in altar pictures and graphic cycles. The direct preliminary to the Vasvár painting is Jacob Schmutzer's engraving made after Franz Anton Maulbertsch's painting. The other large altar picture shows the Sermon of St Vincent Ferrer. The size of the picture is identical with that of the St John painting – probably it was on an altar across from it. St Vincent (Valencia c. 1350 – Vannes [Brittany] 1419) was a Dominican monk who lived most of his life in Spain as one of the greatest preachers of the 15th century. The animated baroque painting includes several actors of the saint's life. He is frequently depicted in 18th century Dominican churches, e.g. in Prague, Vác, Sopron, Szombathely and Graz.

Another two rectangular paintings of the same size and equally standing format with semicircular headings survive in the monastery, both depicting the Holy Virgin. In one The Virgin hands over St Dominic's true image to a Dominican monk (the miracle of Soriano), with St Catherine of Alexandria and St Mary Magdalene as secondary figures. The other shows the Holy Virgin, patroness of Dominican and Hungarian saints. This painting combines the protective, sheltering role of the Virgin in the medieval Virgin of Mercy type with the baroque cult of Patrona Hungariae and the veneration of Dominican and Hungarian saints.

In the gable of the shrine of the Holy Virgin the martyr virgin of antiquity St Thecla is depicted with her usual attributes: a palm branch in her right hand and the cross in her left, the tamed lion being by her side. In the gable of the St Dominic altar St Catherine dei Ricci (Florence 1522 – Prato 1590) is depicted in mystic ecstasy. The figure was also tentatively identified as St Catherine of Siena (another stigmatized Dominican nun) but the appearance of the souls in Purgatory clearly refers to St Catherine dei Ricci.

The portrait of the second founder count György Széchényi (1592?–1695) was also kept at the monastery. The closest analogy to the portrait is the Széchényi picture in the Nagycenk mansion (owned by the Xantus János Museum, Győr). The sacristy furniture also included oval pictures of two Dominican female saints, St Margaret of Hungary and St Catherine of Siena, and another two of Ss Peter and Paul – the latter two lost now. The painters of the pictures datable to around 1760–70 are unknown; as for the somewhat earlier oval pictures, the name of Vince Sallay, a Dominican painter of Szombathely, may also be considered.

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