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crocin (a saffron derivative) has been shown to enhance apoptosis with increased ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and activation of caspases in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells [ 11 ], the potential beneficial effects of combined HIIT and saffron on apoptosis in

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ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 is influential in regulating the susceptibility of the apoptosis in a cell. In both P-Hep G2 and R-Hep G2 cells, cetuximab alone and also coadministration of cetuximab and epirubicin HCl enhanced the expression of Bax relative to

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Apoptosis stimulating proteins of p53 (ASPP-l and ASPP-2) are a novel family of proteins that have been found to co-stimulate p53 activation of Bax (Bcl-2 associated protein X) inducing caspase-mediated apoptosis. Therefore, these proteins may play an important role in regulating apoptosis in normal and neoplastic cells. However, their cellular and tissue distribution has not been documented. The aim of this study was to determine the localization pattern of ASPP-2 in a variety of normal and malignant human tissues, including liver, lung, prostate, small intestine, kidney, ovary, bladder, cervix, breast, stomach, bowel, gallbladder, endometrium, pancreas, spleen and thyroid.The distribution and expression of ASPP-2 was assessed by immunohistochemistry in a range of formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded, benign and malignant human tissues, using a mouse monoclonal antibody against ASPP-2.The results showed a variable pattern of positivity of ASPP-2 within the tissues studied. ASPP-2 expression was localized in the cytoplasmic paranuclear granules in the epithelial cells of most of the organs we studied. The pattern of staining intensity of ASPP-2 correlated to the maturation state in benign tissue and to the differentiation state in the context of bladder cancer.This study indicates that ASPP-2 has a specific distribution pattern within tissues and cells in a way that appears to be related to differentiation. However, the patterns are neither simplistic nor straightforward and will require further investigation in order to appreciate fully their physiological/pathological significance.

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Participation of apoptosis during the development of pacing-induced dilated cardiomyopathy is not fully understood. After 7 weeks rapid right ventricular pacing, gene expressions of Bax, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 were measured by RTQ-PCR from interventricular septum biopsies that were taken weekly in 21 beagle dogs during the development of heart failure. We evaluated protein levels of these genes by Western blot and DNA fragmentation by TUNEL method from autopsy samples. Gene expression of Bax remained unchanged during the pacing period; Bcl-2 mRNA expression transiently decreased in moderate heart failure and their ratio (Bcl-2/Bax) was not significantly altered. Caspase-3 gene expression increased in heart failure. Compared to the control group, expression of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins and their ratio were increased in dogs only after 4 weeks of pacing. No band of activated Caspase was found in the normal nor in the paced myocardium. In the TUNEL assay there was no significant difference between numbers of apoptotic cells in any of the groups, although a few TUNEL-positive cells were detected in the paced groups. Our results are not in favour of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of heart failure in this model and may be it could be attributed to activation of other systems.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: A. Moslehi, Fatemeh Nabavizadeh, A.R. Dehpou, S.M. Tavanga, G. Hassanzadeh, A. Zekri, H. Nahrevanian, and H. Sohanaki

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress provides abnormalities in insulin action, inflammatory responses, lipoprotein B100 degradation and hepatic lipogenesis. Excess accumulation of triglyceride in hepatocytes may also lead to disorders such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Opioid peptides are involved in triglyceride and cholesterol dysregulation, inflammation and cell death. In this study, we evaluated Naltrexone effects on ER stress induced liver injury. To do so, C57/BL6 mice received saline, DMSO and Naltrexone, as control groups. ER stress was induced by tunicamycin (TM) injection. Naltrexone was given before TM administration. Liver blood flow and biochemical serum analysis were measured. Histopathological evaluations, TNF-α measurement and Real-time RT-PCR were also performed. TM challenge provokes steatosis, cellular ballooning and lobular inflammation which significantly reduced in Naltrexone treated animals. ALT, AST and TNF-α increased in the TM group and improved in the Naltrexone plus TM group. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels decreased in TM treated mice with no increase in Naltrexone treated animals. In the Naltrexone plus TM group, gene expression of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase3 significantly lowered compared with the TM group. In this study, we found that Naltrexone had a notable alleviating role in ER stress induced steatosis and liver injury.

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Magyar Onkológia
Authors: Edit Rápolti, András Szigeti, Róbert Farkas, Szabolcs Bellyei, Árpád Boronkai, András Papp, Éva Gömöri, Örs Péter Horváth, and László Mangel

, Nüßlein , S , Fietkau , R et al. 1998 Apoptosis, proliferation, BAX, Bcl-2 and p53 status prior to and after preoperative radiochemotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 43 585 – 591

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, L. F., Selinger, E. S., Lieberman, J. A. és mtsa: Apoptotic proteins in the temporal cortex in schizophrenia: High Bax/Bcl-2 ratio without caspase-3 activation. Am. J. Psychiatry, 2004, 161 , 109

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115596. 40 Jafarinejad-Farsangi S, Farazmand A, Mahmoudi M, et al. MicroRNA-29a induces apoptosis via increasing the Bax : Bcl-2 ratio in dermal fibroblasts of patients with

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Thiago Henrique M. Vargas, Camila N. Barra, Lidia H. Pulz, Greice C. Huete, Karine G. Cadrobbi, Adriana Tomoko Nishiya, Silvia Regina Kleeb, José Guilherme Xavier, José Luiz Catão-Dias, and Ricardo F. Strefezzi

pathways. Possible Gal-3 mutations and/or interactions with BAX, BCL2 or even other proteins may alter their functions and modulate apoptosis in different ways. Another possibility deserving future investigation is that Gal-3 might have different effects

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hormonal expression is practically negative in osteosarcoma of craniofacial bones [ 35 ]. We carried out real-time PCR assay for detection of the expression of the Bax , Bcl-2 and P53 genes in MCF-7 and MG-63 cells exposed to effective concentration (2

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