little evidence of the Amazigh (i.e. Berber) language? I suggest that the explanation for this singular linguistic legacy is to be found in the ethnic and linguistic make–up of the invading force of 711, in so far as we can recreate it from the patchy
“Interpreting for Relevance: Discourse and Translation”,Institute of English Studies of Warsaw University, Poland, Kazimierz Dolny, 12-14 June 2006; “The Future of Conference Interpreting: Training, Technology and Research”, University of Westminster, London 30, June - 1 July 2006
The goal of the present study is to observe Assia Djebar's novels written since 1980. The significante of these novels is that they represent a new literary writing practice. Their specificty offers us a better understanding of that part of the Maghrebian literature that has been written in French. We can state that Djebar's fiction results from the interaction of her imagination and her heterogeneus origin: Arabic, Isamlic, French and Berber.
Mubi-Toram is a group of languages in the Republic of Chad (some of them close to the border with Sudan). This group belongs to the eastern subbranch of Chadic and thus represents the member of the immense Afro-Asiatic (Semito-Hamitic) macrofamily comprising six equipotential branches: Semitic, Egyptian, Berber, Cushitic, Omotic, and Chadic. Mubi-Toram is namely the last (26th) Chadic group in the classification proposed by H. Jungraithmayr (Jungraithmayr — Ibriszimow 1994, Vol. II, p. xv). This is one of the least studied Chadic groups from the standpoint of both lexicography and comparison. For each of its daughter languages we usually find just one wordlist, among them only Mubi is relatively better provided with sources.The success of modern research on Chadic phonological and lexical reconstruction (initiated by V. M. Illič-Svityč and P. Newman in the mid-1960s) fundamentally depends on how the inner reconstruction and the external (Afro-Asiatic) comparison of every single individual Chadic language group proceeds at the same time. Unfortunately, out of the 26 Chadic groups, only six (namely, Angas-Sura, Bole-Tangale, North Bauchi, Bura-Margi, Mafa-Mada, Kotoko) have been so far more or less satisfactorily studied from this viewpoint.Work on the planned comparative lexicon of the Mubi-Toram languages was begun by the author in the summer of 2008. The present series of papers is to integrate this remote lexical stock in its wider Chadic and Afro-Asiatic context by providing materials for the research outlined above.
In Kabyle Berber there are two types of plural: one is internal and the other is external. The internal plural is characterized by the fact that the quality of the vowels changes, whereby the last vowel is always A, e.g., azarәz ‘cord’ → izuraz ‘cords’. The external plural involves the suffixation of -n, e.g., iθβir ‘pigeon’ → iθβir-n ‘pigeons’. Kabyle plural presents some melodic items which are not present in the singular form (e.g., iðmәr ‘chest’ → iðmar-n ‘chests’, iðw ‘horn’ → iәiw-n ‘horns’, amәçsa ‘shepherd’ → imәçsaw-n ‘shepherds’). Since they cannot be predicted, these items must be a piece of the root’s lexical properties. For reasons to be determined, they do not appear in singular forms. It is shown that when a root of the external plural class bears an A that is not visible in the singular, this A is promoted to the surface in the plural form at any cost, i.e., even if damage on other items of the root is caused. As a consequence of the appearance of the A, the gemination of a consonant or the expression of a vowel may be suspended, e.g., azәqqur ‘log’ → izәγran ‘logs’. Yet, this A cannot be considered as a plural marker since it may well be absent from external plurals, e.g., argaz ‘man’ → irgaz-n ‘men’. Rather, it is an idiosyncratic property of the root, and the plural morpheme contains an explicit instruction for it to appear on the surface, involving, as it will be shown, a branching phenomenon. Thus, part of the plural morpheme consists in an instruction for a specific melodic item to branch.
, Berbers G, Fry NK, He Q, Riffelmann M, Wirsing von Konig CH, EU Pertstrain Group: What to do and what not to do in serological diagnosis of pertussis: recommendations from EU reference laboratories. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 30, 307–312 (2011