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Introduction There is an increasing worldwide trend toward utilization of pozzolanic (or cementitious) by-products either as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM) in manufacture of blended cement or as a mineral admixture

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], therefore, steel slag is a cementitious material in potential, and can be used as supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) to produce steel slag blended cements, which has been noted for both environmental and economical advantages [ 2 – 4 ]. Owing to

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Abstract  

In this work, the hydration rate and products of blended zeolite cements were studied for periods up to 360 days. Thermoanalytical methods (TG/DTG and DTA) were applied in order to evaluate the hydration rate of blended cements, while. X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy were used in order to identify the hydrated products. As it is concluded the incorporation of zeolite in cement contributes to the consumption of Ca(OH)2 formed during the cement hydration and the formation of cement-like hydrated products. The pozzolanic reaction of the zeolite is rather slow during the first days of hydration but it is accelerated after the 28 days.

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that blended cements with four components have on the flow-ability and compressive strength of mortars. The objectives of this work are to prepare mortar mixes for each level of cement substitution and test their flow and compressive strength

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Abstract  

The present study is based on the influence of the addition of a pozzolanic material as a result of the activation of an industrial waste coming from the Spanish paper industry on the heating as well as hydration heat of the cement mortars made with 10 or 20% of active addition. Once the sludge has been calcined at different temperatures (700–800°C) and stays in furnace (2 and 5 h), the calcined products showed high pozzolanic activity. The maximum activity corresponded to the paper sludge calcined at 700°C for 2 h (S1). Besides, it can be proved that there was an increase both of the heating and also of the hydration heat in the first 23–25 h for both additions (10 and 20% of S1) regarding the reference cement mortar. This behaviour would be related to the influence of different effects: filler and pozzolanic during the first hours of reaction, and by the dilution effect for longer hydration times, mainly when 20% of S1 was added.

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, mainly Class C or F fly ash as specified in ASTM C 618 [ 2 ], is reused as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM) in blended cement producing or as a mineral admixture in concrete mixing. The rest can not be used in cement and concrete because of

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Abstract  

Two types of raw materials, original kaolin sand OKS I and OKS II were used for experiment. They were transformed (1 h at 650 °C with 10 °C/min temperature increase) to burnt kaolin sand (BKS I and BKS II) with pozzolanic properties. Contents of decisive mineral—metakaolinite—in BKSs are as follows: BKS I (fraction below 0.06 mm) 20%; BKS II (fraction below 0.06 mm) 36% and BKS II (fraction below 0.1 mm) 31% by mass. Mortars with blends of Portland cement (PC) and BKS were prepared announced as: MK I (0.06) with 5 and 10% cement substitution by metakaolinite; MK II (0.06) with 5 and 10% cement substitution by metakaolinite and MK II (0.1) with 5, 10, 15 and 20% cement substitution by metakaolinite. The reference mortar with 100% of PC was made for comparison. All mortars were adjusted on the constant workability 180 ± 5 mm flow. Besides significant increase in compressive strengths—the refinement of pore structure in mortars with BKS connected with decreases in permeability and Ca(OH)2 content were revealed. The above facts confirm pozzolanic reaction of BKS in contact with hydrated PC and indicate perceptiveness of BKS for the use in cement-based systems as a pozzolanic addition.

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exert major influence on the hydration kinetics of blended cement paste are: the mineralogical composition of clinker [ 3 ], the gypsum content [ 4 ], the initial water-to-cement ratio ( w/cm ) [ 5 ], the particle size distribution [ 6 ], the dispersion

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) and the respective blended cements prepared by mixing each with each natural pozzolan (NP). The proportion, by weight, was PC/NP 60%/40% (=60/40), with and without additional gypsum in proportions of up to 7.0% SO 3 . The 100/00 ratio denotes a pure

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Calorimetric comparison of portland cements containing silica fume and metakaolin

Is silica fume, like metakaolin, characterized by pozzolanic activity that is more specific than generic?

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: R. Talero and V. Rahhal

Abstract  

This new study must be regarded to be a direct outcome of two previous studies published by these same authors, which were conducted to respond to interesting questions brought out about the effect of silica fume, SF and metakaolins, M and MQ, on the heat of hydration of portland cements, PC, with very different C3A and C3S contents. The answer to these so interesting questions has been the primary objective of the present research. For this purpose, the same PC, PC1 (14% C3A) and PC2 (≈0% C3A), metakaolins, silica fume and blended cements were once again used more 60/40 for sulphate attack, and the same analytical techniques (CC, pozzolanicity and XRD analysis) and parameters determined as well. In this new research, the sulphate attack was determined by two accelerated methods: Le Chatelier-Ansttet and ASTM C 452-68. The experimental results of sulphate attack mainly, have demonstrated definitively that the high, rapid and early pozzolanic activity exhibited by SF also is, as in the case of the two metakaolins, more specific than generic, for it indirectly stimulated greater C3A than C3S hydration, but only in the first 16 h monitored in this study. Thereafter it is the contrary, i.e., anti- or contra-specific for the same purpose. And the longer the hydration time, the more anti- or contra-specific it became, since, when exposed to sulphate attack, SF blended cements resisted or even prevented the aggressive attack against PC1 which, with a higher C3A content than PC2, was the more vulnerable of the two. By contrast, metakaolin MQ not only failed to hinder or prevent the attack, but heightened its effects, rendering it more intense, aggressive and rapid, leading to what could be called a rapid gypsum attack.

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