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Abstract  

Differential scanning microcalorimetry (DSC) and UV–VIS absorption spectroscopy were used to obtain the characteristics of blood serum from newborn rat’ after maternal treatment with cyclophosphamide in comparison with control. The obtained DSC curves reveal a complex endothermic peak due to the unfolding process of various serum proteins. Thermal profiles and absorption spectra of blood serum are sensitive to the age of newborns as well as to effect of maternal administration of cyclophosphamide. The most significant disturbances in serum proteome were observed for 14-day old newborns. The thermodynamic parameters: enthalpy change (∆H), the normalized first moment (M1) of the thermal transition with respect to the temperature axis and the ratio of C p ex at 70 and 60 °C describing denaturation contributions of globulin forms in respect to unliganded albumin with haptoglobin was estimated. Moreover, the second derivative spectroscopy in the UV region was used to resolve the complex protein spectrum. The differences in blood serum detected by DSC and UV–VIS confirm a potential usefulness of these methods for diagnostic and monitoring changes with age as well as the pathological state of blood serum.

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Abstract  

Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used to determine 15 trace elements in twelve blood serum samples taken from healthy students at Bilkent University in Ankara. The method allowed the determination of Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Se, Rb, Cs, Ce, Eu, Tb, Hf, Ta and Hg, which occur at the g.ml–1 to ng.ml–1 levels. There are no values reported for Tb, Hf, Ce, Eu and Ta before. The other results are compared with the values reported in the literature. Most are in the range of the reported values except for Fe, Zn, Se and Cs.

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Abstract  

Direct determination of selenium in biological tissues by X-ray emission spectroscopy is not possible due to the limited sensitivity of all modes of sample excitation. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a preconcentration procedure to bring selenium to detectable level. In this paper a rapid and simple chemical preparation procedure including coprecipitation with APDC for the analysis of selenium in blood serum by X-ray emission spectroscopy is described.

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Abstract  

Neutron activation followed by a simple radio-chemical separation procedure was employed to determine the concentrations of thorium (232Th) in human blood serum, clot, and urine of normal subjects and three groups of occupationally exposed persons. The thorium concentrations in the blood serum, clot, and urine samples of the exposed groups were distinctly higher than those of the other study groups and were found to increase with increasing occupational length of the persons. Daily urinary excretion is correlated with serum thorium burden and it is estimated that the daily excreted thorium is about 15% of the thorium in the serum pool.

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Abstract  

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been applied for studies of blood serum from patients sick with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The denaturation of serum proceeds as endothermic process over the temperature range 45–85 °C. Distinct changes in the shape of DSC curves have been observed for serum from patients with severe stage of COPD (treated with inhaled corticosteroids) relative to serum from healthy individuals. The first moment of the thermal transition with respect to the temperature axis shifts from the normal value of 63.9 ± 0.3 to 65.3 ± 0.7 °C and to 67.6 ± 1.6 °C for early and advanced stages of disease, respectively. The results of our studies suggest age dependence of blood serum denaturation transition.

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Abstract  

An attempt was made to see if there is any correlation between the trace element concentrations in the human blood serum and some specific disease. The serum samples of the patients suffering from cancer, Down syndrome, and Banti syndrome were analyzed by the neutron activation method and compared with the trace element concentrations observed among the clinically healthy men. The cancer patients gave below normal concentrations in Rb, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Al and Se. The Down syndrome patients were found to have similar deficiencies in Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Cu and Sb.

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Abstract  

Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to assess the concentration of the inorganic trace elements in Korean women’s blood serums. It was found that a high concentration of Na and Cl incurs an analytical interference, but the 12 elements such as Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn could be determined under the condition of an interference minimization. Serum samples collected from 63 women were analyzed and the concentration level and range of the elements were evaluated. NIST SRMs were analyzed simultaneously for quality control. The average values of the Na and Cl determined in the serum samples were 3,365 and 3,533 mg/l, Ca was 96.4 mg/l and K was 191 mg/l. Besides, Br, Se and Zn have a concentration level of 6.46, 0.13 and 0.98 mg/l, respectively. It was found that there is no significant difference between the present values and the reported values.

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Abstract  

The potential of the INAA and PIXE methods for the detection of mineral microelement changes in pathological human blood serum has been evaluated on nine cases of different hemopathies. These included hereditary hemolytic anemias (thalassemia, sickle cell disease, spherocytosis) and Hodgkin's disease. 23 elements (Na, Al, Cl, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Sb, Cs, Ba, Au, Hg, Pb) have been detected in serum. Their relative concentration variations correlated with the nature of the disease and with other pathological alterations of blood are discussed.

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Abstract  

Strontium is a trace element whose distribution and metabolism are similar to those of calcium, its close chemical analogue. The element received scientific attention because of its potential beneficial effects in the treatment of osteoporosis andosteolytic metastatic bone lesions but also because of the possible problems associated with the retention of90Sr from radioactive fall-out. In continuation of a series of experiments intended to establish reliable reference values for trace elements in human blood serum and packed blood cells, we set up a project to determine also strontium. The following values were obtained (mean±standard deviation): 22.2±4.8 ng/ml (serum) and 2.85±1.11 ng/g wet weight (packed blood cells).

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Angiogenesis plays an essential role in the development of a neoplastic tumour by conditioning both its growth and the formation of metastases. The induction of blood vessel growth occurs under the influence of proangiogenic factors, among which Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) seems to be the most important. The aim of this research was to study the level of VEGF measured by ELISA in the serum of dogs with neoplasms of the oral cavity. The study material comprised samples of neoplastic tissue from 17 operated dogs and the serum of the examined animals as well as of dogs from the control group. The tissue samples were taken from dogs of different breeds, aged 6–14 years. The tumour type was determined in accordance with the applicable WHO classification. Blood samples taken from sick dogs and from animals of the control group were centrifuged, and immunoenzymatic labelling of VEGF was performed in the obtained serum using ELISA and R&D system reagents (Quantikine Canine VEGF). All stages of VEGF labelling were performed according to the recommendation of the test manufacturer. The median of VEGF in the serum of the dogs with neoplasms of the oral cavity was 40.64 pg/mL. The lowest value of 14.26 pg/mL was observed in the case of fibrosarcoma, and the highest value of 99.19 pg/mL in the case of squamous cell carcinoma. The VEGF median in the control group amounted to 11.14 pg/mL whereas the VEGF value in the groups of animals diagnosed with benign tumours ranged between 2.30 and 19.74 pg/mL. Elevated VEGF in the blood serum, in comparison with the benign tumour group and the control group, was observed in all examined neoplasms of the oral cavity. It was suggested that overexpression of VEGF can have a prognostic value and is useful in the early detection of neoplasms.

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