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Abstract  

Diffusion of sodium in Mn and Ti bearing sodium borosilicate glass used for the immobilization of the high level waste at the Waste Immobilization Plant, Tarapur has been studied by heterogeneous isotopic exchange using 24Na as the radiotracer for sodium. The temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient of sodium in the glass was found to follow Arrhenius equation below the glass transition temperature.

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Abstract  

Barium borosilicate glass (BaBSG) is proposed as a potential candidate for vitrification of nuclear waste generated from thoria based nuclear reactors. Along with fission products, activation products and many inactive chemicals, like fluorine in the form of HF are expected to be present in the dissolver solution with nuclear waste. As vitrification occurs at high temperature, it is important to quantify fluorine in BaBSG. Due to its complex matrix, most of the wet chemical and nuclear analytical methods encounter problems in the estimation of fluorine. Particle induced γ-ray emission (PIGE) method has been standardized for non-destructive determination of fluorine contents in BaBSG samples utilizing measurement of prompt gamma-rays from 19F (p, p’γ) 19F reaction. Experiments have been carried out with thick pellet targets prepared in cellulose matrix using 4 MeV proton beam from the folded tandem ion accelerator at BARC, Mumbai. For obtaining current normalized count rate of interest, beam current variation was monitored by the Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) method as well as by the in situ approach using an externally added element sensitive to PIGE. In this paper standardization of PIGE methods for F determination, validation of methods using synthetic samples, and application to BaBSG samples are reported.

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Abstract  

Prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis methodologies were standardized using a reflected neutron beam and Compton suppressed γ-ray spectrometer to quantify boron from trace to major concentrations. Neutron self-shielding correction factors for higher boron contents (0.2–10 mg) in samples were obtained from the sensitivity of chlorine by irradiating KCl with and without boron. This method was validated by determining boron concentrations in six boron compounds and applied to three borosilicate glass samples with boron contents in the range of 1–10 mg. Low concentrations of boron (10–58 mg kg−1) were also determined in two samples and five reference materials from NIST and IAEA.

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-processing, preceding the final disposal of a geologic forming repository deeply during a long-term storage [ 1–4 ]. In Hungary, the Boda Claystone at Mecsek site is the candidate host rock of high level radioactive waste [ 5 ]. Borosilicate glass, a chemical

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800 ) ranged from 22.2 to 33.3 %, and it might be the result of the formation of a ceramic material (a ceramics of a type SiBCO [ 20 , 35 – 37 ]—a borosilicate glass and silica). The content of boron in macromolecules of PMVBSs does not affect the

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Summary  

This study deals with the treatment of Cs+and Sr2+by using natural clinoptilolite from Ardakan region (Yazd province) of Iran and its relevant zeolite P as well as the vitrification process for immobilizing the Cs and Sr radionuclides in borosilicate glass matrices. The evaluation of various samples was carried out using X-ray techniques (XRF, XRD) as well as atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) for leaching experiments.

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Abstract  

The effects of iron on the structural properties of Zn-borosilicate glass and Pb-metaphosphate glass were studied using X-ray diffraction,57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy. Zn-borosilicate glass was prepared with varying amounts of Fe2O3 (up to 30% wt.). It was found that the chemical form of added iron (-FeOOH, -Fe2O3 or Fe3O4) affects the Fe3+/Fe2+ ratio, as well as the distribution of iron ions at different coordination sites. At high concentration of iron the crystallization of zinc ferrite in the glass matrix takes place. X-ray diffraction and57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that the amount of zinc ferrite in Zn-borosilicate glass decreases with the following order of addition: -FeOOH -Fe2O3 Fe3O4. In Pb-metaphosphate glass doped with high concentration of -Fe2O3, the crystallization of Fe3(PO4)2 is pronounced. The assignments of IR band positions and the corresponding interpretation are given. The importance of this study for the technology of vitrification of high-level radioactive wastes is emphasized.

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Abstract  

Speciation of technetium in ground water has been studied for understanding the migration behaviour of this radionuclide in deep geological formations. A combination of free-liquid electromigration, ion exchange, solvent extraction, coprecipitation and dialysis methods has been applied. Both oxic and anoxic conditions have been employed. Systems studied include leaching of sodium borosilicate glass spiked with99Tc and95mTc followed by its passage through glauconitic sand columns, and dialysis of TcO2 with ground water, sodium chloride, and humic acid solutions. Results indicate the presence of the pertechnetate, TcO 4 , ion as the dominating species.

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Abstract  

Static leaching experiments have been conducted to evaluate the durability of sodium borosilicate glass as the host matrix for immobilized high-level radioactive wastes. Simulated granitic groundawater, synthetic Grande Ronde basaltic groundwater and distilled deionized water have been used. The results indicated a strong influence of the leachant composition through both its pH and nature as well as concentrations of the ions present on the leach rate. The roles of silicon, boron and a few other elements on leaching have been examined. Three surface area to volume ratios (SA/V) and two temperatures were investigated. Total mass loss and normalized elemental mass loss results showed that the rate of release decreased with increased SA/V ratio in the three leachants at both temperatures. The rate of leaching at 90 °C was 5–30 times higher than that at 40 °C. Activation energies for the glass at three SA/V ratios have been calculated.

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Abstract  

Highly radioactive waste from defense-related activities at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina are to be incorporated into a borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for long-tem geological isolation. Processing and repository safety considerations require the determination of 24 radioisotopes that meet the reporting criteria. These isotopes include fission products, activation products, and daughter nuclei that grow into the waste. Four isotopes,137Cs,90Sr,238Pu and238U will be routinely measured in the DWPF operation for process control. This work shows that the concentrations of the other 20 reportable radioisotopes in the final glass product can be predicted from a thorough characterization of the high level waste (HLW) tanks and a knowledge of the concentrations of the major non-radioactive components in the vitrification process.

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