Part II of the study deals with changes of support structures interpreted among building constructions. We primarily link structural changes to the application of new materials and new approaches. Two areas are dealt with in this present study. One is the development and change of vaults, the other is changes of framework of building in case of applying new materials that are only partly suitable for taking bending and tensile stress.
The society is changing faster and faster. The technical development times are constantly growing shorter, whereas the rate of development is increasing exponentially. Hence, the treatment of the environment is also changing. The society responds to these changes by becoming more and more flexible and adapts itself to new situations.
In contrast to this, the construction is static and the construction industry is conservative. The further development of construction methods and materials is also slow. For centuries, the same materials have been used.
The requirements to living space become more and more multiple. Dwellings are usually made for one use, one setting of requirements. The result is a growing vacancy of dwellings. The shown project, which is under realization at the moment is coming up with one possible solution for a dwelling to use it with multiple requirements.
The study involves structures applicable in building structures. Present part I includes structures applicable in building structures. Building structures for this are classified according to functions. Two main groups can be distinguished: frameworks and building structures ensuring serviceability. Further subgroups can be distinguished within both main groups.
Upon examining the structural frame it is clear that buildings can be well classified according to frameworks. The four-element-classification of vertical load-bearing structural elements, walls and pillars — wall frame, pillar frame, mixed frame and frames without walls and pillars — provide a rather simple classification. Considering the different construction technologies of walls and pillars, and frameworks differing from these provides a multi-element classification. Various subgroups can be distinguished based on the relationship between walls and pillars as well as ceilings within the individual groups.
The unique spatial system of the medieval parish church in Kassa (now Košice, in Slovakia) induced strong debates in the literature, and some scholars called the master behind it a bungler. The reconstruction of the church at the end of the 19th century changed the floor plan entirely, with the result of a more regular arrangement.Using the drawings about the state of the church the medieval system is reconstructable in 3D. With the help of this 3D-model a structural analysis is possible.According to the spatial analysis and the structural calculations, the former unique layout of the church was the result of conscious planning.
“ selected ” geometric forms – rods, plates, discs and shells – allow for a simplified description of the mechanical state (see for instance Onouye–Kane [ 1 ]). The use of “ selected ” geometric forms for buildingconstructions – column, pillar, wall, and
Authors:Abbas Al-Hdabi, Mohammed K. Fakhraldin, Rasha A. Al-Fatlawy, and Tawfek Sheer Ali
PSA in comparison with cement. 6 Conclusions This paper investigated the use of PSA and cement individually to improve the mechanical properties of the granular materials, which are suitable to subbase course for road and buildingconstructions. The
The most important factor in the worldwide problem of global warming is the emission of carbon dioxide. The 23% of carbon dioxide emissions generated by building construction must be reduced. Reduction in thermal conductivity, especially via improved insulation, is the most basic factor for decreasing energy consumption. Therefore, accurate and continuous thermal conductivity measurements are important in saving energy. This study presents methods for investigating thermal conductivity measurement and compares three methods: the heat flow meter, laser flash analysis, and thermal conductivity analyzer.