During the reconquest of the barbarian-held western provinces, in his effort to establish religious unity in the Byzantine Empire, Emperor Justinian — his powers extended — issued secular decrees to sanction the decisions of bishops, making his own creed compulsory for Catholics. In the 530s he was constantly faced with the dilemma of whether to join the western church, which honoured the decisions of the Council of Chalcedon, or to reconcile himself to the Monophysites, popularised by Alexandria. As Theodora had an affinity for the Monophysites, Justinian changed his attitude several times. However, both his violent methods and his frequent replacement of clerical leaders contributed to the fact that instead of an agreement, an ultimate schism occurred between the two groups.
The emperors of the 10th century made efforts to attract the Hungarians into the zone influenced of Byzantium, and later Basile II permitted them to join to the Latin World. His successors formed closer relations to the Hungarian rulers again, as first the Balkans and then the whole Empire were in danger. Kral Géza, the husband of a Synadene was given a crown by the emperor Michael VII. The Author will look for an explanation of the choice of this Byzantine aristocracy by examining the place of the Synadenoi in the Byzantine aristocracy.
This paper discusses Early Byzantine clasps in the form of peacock, which occurred in modern Abkhazia and Kartli. These brooches date from the sixth and seventh centuries and meet with parallels among synchronous mediaeval antiquities. Peacock brooches discovered in the Southern Caucasus were imported directly from Byzantium. These finds indicate connections of the population of the Southern Caucasus and the Byzantine Empire.
Letters are important traces of Byzantine literary culture, but a comprehensive modern investigation is still lacking. This contribution is a preliminary work to a major project. It deals with certain aspects of Byzantine epistolography from the Late Antiquity to the end of the Byzantine Empire focusing on 1) the tradition of letter and letter-collections and 2) elements that constitute a Byzantine letter (style, forms of address, extent of letters, motifs).
This paper examines the foreign policy of the Galician-Volhynian prince Roman Mstislavich. Roman became the main military ally of the Byzantine Empire in the early 13th century. Byzantium was going through a severe political crisis caused by the Serbian and the Bulgarian uprisings and by the crushing raids of the Cumans. According to Niketas Choniates, the nomads’ aggression could have been stopped only thanks to the aid of the Galician prince Roman. The circumstances and the time of Roman’s campaign in Choniates’ account are the same as in the Russian chronicles reporting the steppe campaigns of the Galician-Volhynian prince.
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the imperial ritual was preserved and systematized in the East, in the ‘Byzantine’ Empire, by intensifying and Christianizing. The Book of Ceremonies by Constantine Porphyrogennetos, written in Greek in Constantinople in the 10th century, by compiling protocols of the previous centuries, gathers a rich collection of court rituals to be observed during the great religious and civil ceremonies which accompanied the important events of the reigns of the sovereigns, and the sportive events at the Hippodrome. We investigate about the permanence and the future of the Latin language in the ceremonial of the Byzantine Court: the survival of formulaic expressions of order and acclamation in Latin (rhômaïzein), Latin phrases underlaying the Greek text, and a great lot of Latinisms (rhômaï(k)a lexis) in the institutional and technical lexicon, sometimes unknown in Latin, which attest integrational processes, lexical creation, and phenomens of ‘aller-retour’ (round trip) between the West and the East, and between the Greek and the Latin languages.
Theophanes Confessor, Byzantine author of the early 9th century, when referring to the Khazars in his work entitled Chronographia, used the term “Eastern Turks”. It is widely accepted that Byzantine authors used such terms in pairs, so the pendant of “Eastern Turks” was “Western Turks”, the latter being used to denote the early Hungarians. This conclusion is based on the fact that Byzantine chroniclers called the Hungarians Turks at the end of the 9th century. Theophanes mentioned the Khazars as Eastern Turks, as if he had information on a people also called Turks living west of the Khazars. However, not all historians shared this view, and some of them supposed that Theophanes applied the term Eastern Turks in a geographical sense, since the Khazars had lived east of the Byzantine Empire. The solution to this problem has far-reaching consequences. If Theophanes referred to the Hungarians, that would mark their first appearance in written sources at the beginning of the 9th century. But the pendant of the “Eastern Turks” in the chronicle of Theophanes Confessor, is not the “Western Turks”, but the “Western Huns”.
This article is devoted to the coinage of Western Turkic Qaghanate (568–740) in the Chach (Tashkent) region and the influence of Byzantine monetary traditions on their formation. Bearing on the newly discovered numismatic material the authors tried to throw light on the stages of coinage of the Western Turkic Qaghanate and elucidate the brief history of their relations with the Byzantine Empire. The Western Turkic rulers minted their own coins (with the titles of żpγw ‘Yabghu’, cpγw x′γ′n ‘Yabghu-qaghan’, the ethnopolitical name of twrk x′γ′n ‘Türk-Qaghan’ and with the rulers’ names of trδw x′γ′n ‘Tardu qaghan’, twn cpγw x′γ′n ‘Tun Yabghu-qaghan’, all in the Sogdian script) in the Chach region and these coins were symbols of the independence of the Western Turkic Qaghanate. On the coins the following three variants of an original tamga can be seen:
. The difference in the shape of the tamgas, in our opinion, is connected with the three stages of the formation of the Western Turkic Qaghanate. Stage 1: the Western Qaghanate is a wing or peripheral state within the Turkic Qaghanate under the rule of a Yabghu (the title Yabghu appears on the coins as
); stage 2: during the period when it was related nominally to the Turkic Qaghanate, in the period of the Yabghu-Qaghanate (the title Yabghu-qaghan on the coins is
); stage 3: from 630 onward, after the defeat of the Eastern Turkic Qaghanate by Tang China, the Western Turkic Qaghanate existed for a certain time as an independent state (the title Qaghan on the coins is