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of the Byzantine Empire. [Bizánc rövid története.] Gondolat Kiadó, Budapest, 1961. [Hungarian] Kádár, Z., Tóth, A.: The unicornis and other animals in Byzantium. [Az egyszarvú és egyéb állatfajták

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During the reconquest of the barbarian-held western provinces, in his effort to establish religious unity in the Byzantine Empire, Emperor Justinian — his powers extended — issued secular decrees to sanction the decisions of bishops, making his own creed compulsory for Catholics. In the 530s he was constantly faced with the dilemma of whether to join the western church, which honoured the decisions of the Council of Chalcedon, or to reconcile himself to the Monophysites, popularised by Alexandria. As Theodora had an affinity for the Monophysites, Justinian changed his attitude several times. However, both his violent methods and his frequent replacement of clerical leaders contributed to the fact that instead of an agreement, an ultimate schism occurred between the two groups.

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Summary

The emperors of the 10th century made efforts to attract the Hungarians into the zone influenced of Byzantium, and later Basile II permitted them to join to the Latin World. His successors formed closer relations to the Hungarian rulers again, as first the Balkans and then the whole Empire were in danger. Kral Géza, the husband of a Synadene was given a crown by the emperor Michael VII. The Author will look for an explanation of the choice of this Byzantine aristocracy by examining the place of the Synadenoi in the Byzantine aristocracy.

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. Ettől kezdve a két állam kisebb-nagyobb szünetekkel szinte folyamatosan háborúban állt. (D. Jacoby: After the Fourth Crusade: The Latin Empire of Constantinople and the Frankish States. In: The Cambridge History of the Byzantine Empire . Ed. J

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This paper discusses Early Byzantine clasps in the form of peacock, which occurred in modern Abkhazia and Kartli. These brooches date from the sixth and seventh centuries and meet with parallels among synchronous mediaeval antiquities. Peacock brooches discovered in the Southern Caucasus were imported directly from Byzantium. These finds indicate connections of the population of the Southern Caucasus and the Byzantine Empire.

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Letters are important traces of Byzantine literary culture, but a comprehensive modern investigation is still lacking. This contribution is a preliminary work to a major project. It deals with certain aspects of Byzantine epistolography from the Late Antiquity to the end of the Byzantine Empire focusing on 1) the tradition of letter and letter-collections and 2) elements that constitute a Byzantine letter (style, forms of address, extent of letters, motifs).

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This paper examines the foreign policy of the Galician-Volhynian prince Roman Mstislavich. Roman became the main military ally of the Byzantine Empire in the early 13th century. Byzantium was going through a severe political crisis caused by the Serbian and the Bulgarian uprisings and by the crushing raids of the Cumans. According to Niketas Choniates, the nomads’ aggression could have been stopped only thanks to the aid of the Galician prince Roman. The circumstances and the time of Roman’s campaign in Choniates’ account are the same as in the Russian chronicles reporting the steppe campaigns of the Galician-Volhynian prince.

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Miller, T. S.: The birth of hospital in the Byzantine Empire. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore–London, 1985. Miller T. S

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Abstract

In this paper we present and analyse the 6th–7th-century Byzantine coins found at Orosháza and its surroundings. The first Byzantine coin – a follis of Justinian I – was found in Szentetornya in 1877. Using metal detectors during archaeological survey eight Byzantine coins had come to light: a follis of Justinian I, five folles, a half-follis of Justin II, and two folles of Heraclius. A greater part of them was accurately identified. Here we'll analyse their role outside the Byzantine Empire, as compared to the coin circulation in the Avar Age Carpathian Basin. We try to answer the question why Byzantine coins relatively frequently occurred at Orosháza and its surroundings.

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Theophanes Confessor, Byzantine author of the early 9th century, when referring to the Khazars in his work entitled Chronographia, used the term “Eastern Turks”. It is widely accepted that Byzantine authors used such terms in pairs, so the pendant of “Eastern Turks” was “Western Turks”, the latter being used to denote the early Hungarians. This conclusion is based on the fact that Byzantine chroniclers called the Hungarians Turks at the end of the 9th century. Theophanes mentioned the Khazars as Eastern Turks, as if he had information on a people also called Turks living west of the Khazars. However, not all historians shared this view, and some of them supposed that Theophanes applied the term Eastern Turks in a geographical sense, since the Khazars had lived east of the Byzantine Empire. The solution to this problem has far-reaching consequences. If Theophanes referred to the Hungarians, that would mark their first appearance in written sources at the beginning of the 9th century. But the pendant of the “Eastern Turks” in the chronicle of Theophanes Confessor, is not the “Western Turks”, but the “Western Huns”.

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