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The primary intent of this paper is to statistically test whether Buddhist countries tend to contribute to global warming mitigation in comparison with other religious groups of countries. A sample of 160 countries were classified into seven groups coded as ‘Buddhist’, ‘Hindu’, ‘Muslim’, ‘Catholic’, ‘Protestant’, ‘Christian mixed’ and ‘None of the above’. This study modelled the religious heritage of a nation into the IPAT equation (Environmental Impact = Population × Affluence × Technology), religion being as a cultural proxy of the technology factor. ‘Buddhist’ countries were found likely to emit lower CO2 compared with ‘Protestant’ and ‘Christian mixed’ countries, although likely to emit higher CO2 compared than ‘Hindu’, ‘Muslim’ and ‘Catholic’ countries, all other factors being held equal. The relatively low group effect of ‘Buddhist’ countries on CO2 emissions can be interpreted to support the argument that teaching Buddhist economics and ecology could be a useful ingredient to curb ever-increasing global CO2 emissions. Thus, further study is warranted as to how teachings from Buddhism can translate into lower CO2 emissions.

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Acta Oeconomica
Authors: Bas van Leeuwen, Aurelian-Petruş Plopeanu, and Peter Foldvari

The number of books published in a country reflects its economic, social and cultural development. Yet, all too often, the production of books is looked upon solely in economic terms, i.e. as a part of national income, or as a proxy for human capital which, in turn, might explain economic growth. In this paper, we aim to give books their day in court. Using a dataset with book titles per 1,000 inhabitants for a large number of countries since 1950, we find that the number of titles was mainly driven by the level of education and income in the lower quantiles. The reduction of printing after 1990 was, surprisingly, not caused by a rise in other media, such as the internet, but, mostly, by a reduction in the effect of education in the poorer countries.

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Scientometrics
Authors: Hildrun Kretschmer, Ramesh Kundra, Donald deB. Beaver, and Theo Kretschmer

Abstract

The causes of gender bias favoring men in scientific and scholarly systems are complex and related to overall gender relationships in most of the countries of the world. An as yet unanswered question is whether in research publication gender bias is equally distributed over scientific disciplines and fields or if that bias reflects a closer relation to the subject matter. We expected less gender bias with respect to subject matter, and so analysed 14 journals of gender studies using several methods and indicators. The results confirm our expectation: the very high position of women in co-operation is striking; female scientists are relatively overrepresented as first authors in articles. Collaboration behaviour in gender studies differs from that of authors in PNAS. The pattern of gender studies reflects associations between authors of different productivity, or “masters” and “apprentices” but the PNAS pattern reflects associations between authors of roughly the same productivity, or “peers”. It would be interesting to extend the analysis of these three-dimensional collaboration patterns further, to see whether a similar characterization holds, what it might imply about the patterns of authorship in different areas, what those patterns might imply about the role of collaboration, and whether there are differences between females and males in collaboration patterns.

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Abstract

This paper provides a first-ever look at differences of centrality scores (i.e., networks) over time and across research specializations in Korea. This is a much needed development, given the variance which is effectively ignored when Science Citation Index (SCI) publications are aggregated. Three quantitative tests are provided—OLS, two sample t-tests, and unit-root tests—to establish the patterns of centrality scores across Korea over time. The unit-root test is particularly important, as it helps identify patterns of convergence in each region's centrality scores. For all other geographic regions besides Seoul, Gyeonggi, and Daejeon, there appears to be little promise—at least in the immediate future—of being network hubs. For these top three regions, though, there is a pattern of convergence in three-quarters of all research specializations, which we attribute in part to policies in the mid- and late-1990s.

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Abstract  

A new sorbent, polyethyleniminemethylenephosphonamidic acid (PEIPPA), was synthesized from commercially available polyethylenimine and P,P-dichlorophenylphosphine oxide. After characterization by (1H, 13C, 31P) NMR and FTIR, the new ion-exchange polymer has been investigated in liquid-solid extraction of uranium. The extraction strongly depends on the pH, initial concentration of uranium, extractant to analyte ratio (mol/mol), ionic strength of the liquid medium and their mutual interactions. Such interactions were investigated through factorial 33 experimental designs in order to achieve the best conditions of batch sorption procedure, obtaining the mutual interaction among variables and optimizing these variables. The recovery of U(VI) is almost quantitative.

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Abstract  

A series of (o-alkylaminophenyl)diphenylphosphine ligands (P–N ligands) containing different alkyl carbon numbers or amino groups have been synthesized and characterized by IR and NMR (1H, 13C, 31P). The rhodium complexes ligated with P–N ligands in the hydroformylation of 1-hexene showed a considerable enhancement with the addition of water. NMR characterization studies suggested that the addition of water would engage in hydrogen bonding to the nitrogen atom of the coordinated P–N ligand, inhibiting the internal Rh–N interaction and generating more of the active unsaturated Rh-species that could react with 1-hexene to start the hydroformylation.

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Jute bags and cocoa butter (CB) were analysed by gas chromatography (GC-FID/MS) to detect and quantify mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH). Extraction clean-up on silica gel SPE (10 g/60 ml) was developed, as a unique sample preparation step for the determination of linear and branched n-alkanes in the range C14 to C31. The size of CB sample (500 mg) was sufficient for the detection of batching oil at levels of 2 mg kg−1, with satisfactory recovery and repeatability. MOSH from batching oil form a hump of unresolved components and the shape reflect balanced molecular-mass distribution between even and odd carbon atoms (from C14 to C22 n-alkanes), expressed with the Carbon Preference Index (CPI=∑odd homologs/∑even homologs). Contaminated raw CB extracted from cocoa beans, transported and stored in jute bags during 2000 and 2001, showed MOSH (average 42 mg kg−1). However, only the 7.5% of the samples analysed of deodorized CB from 2007 to 2009 contained MOSH <36 mg kg−1. High CPI values (>1.26) were attributed to natural hydrocarbons with a strong predominance of odd-numbered paraffins, situated between C22 and C31 n-alkanes (average 31.7±5.37 mg kg−1). The results confirmed that MOSH components below n-C20 were fully eliminated by the deodorization process.

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–171. Myers T. C. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance-PH titrations of myo-inositol hexaphosphate Carbohydr. Res. 1976 46

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paper, I use the following Numismatic Catalogues and Abbreviations: S utherland , C. H. V. — K raay , C.: Catalogue of Coins of the Roman Empire in the Ashmolean Museum. Part I: Augustus (c. 31 BC – AD 14) . Oxford 1975 [AMCRE I]; M attingly , H

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etomidate in a model nervous system (buccal ganglia of Helix pomatia) Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 99C 31 587

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