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. The quality of obtained images from CCD cameras are better than those obtained from CMOS systems but the latter are smaller, faster and can be produced cheaper [ 1 ]. The color and intensity data as obtained by the camera are usually 24 bit data. These

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Evaluation of TLC and gel-electrophoresis separations with cameras and image-analysis techniques has been widespread for several years. A computer program has been developed to enable use of inexpensive image-generating systems such as CCD cameras, webcams, or flat-bed-scanners for the evaluation of TLC and electrophoresis separations in ultra-violet light and white light. The results obtained from image-analysis techniques are presented for different image-generating systems.

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Abstract  

A simultaneous differential scanning calorimeter (DSC)-optical video microscope instrument has been developed. The instrument development included slight modifications to the sample head of a Perkin-Elmer DSC-7, along with the use of a CCD camera and magnifying lenses. The instrument permitted simultaneous following of optical and thermal events during isothermal and non-isothermal DSC experiments. The DSC curves were almost identical to those given by a standard DSC-7. The operational temperature range of the instrument is between −160 to 600°C. The capabilities of the DSC-video microscope are illustrated by examples of ice crystallization data in aqueous solutions of glycerol and dimethyl sulphoxide.

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We present a video-densitometric quantification method in combination with diode-array quantification for the methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butylparaben in cosmetics. These parabens were separated on cyanopropyl bonded plates using water-acetonitrile-dioxane-ethanol-NH3 (25%) (8:2:1:1:0.05, v/v) as mobile phase. The quantification is based on UV-measurements at 255 nm and a bioeffectively-linked analysis using Vibrio fischeri bacteria. Within 5 min, a Tidas S 700 diode-array scanner (J&M, Aalen, Germany) scans 8 tracks and thus measures in total 5600 spectra in the wavelengths range from 190 to 1000 nm. The quantification range for all these parabens is from 20 to 400 ng per band, measured at 255 nm. In the V. fischeri assay a CCD-camera registers the white light of the light-emitting bacteria within 10 min. All parabens effectively suppress the bacterial light emission which can be used for quantifying within a linear range from 100 to 400 ng. Measurements were carried out using a 16-bit MicroChemi chemiluminescence system (biostep GmbH, Jahnsdorf, Germany), using a CCD camera with 4.19 megapixels. The range of linearity is achieved because the extended Kubelka-Munk expression was used for data transformation. The separation method is inexpensive, fast, and reliable.

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Abstract  

We present water imaging of a plant sample both by neutron beam and positron emission tracer imaging system (PETIS). The former method provided static water profile in a plant sample as well as that in the vicinity of a root imbedded in soil. Not only X-ray film but also CT method using a cooled CCD camera is presented. Through non-destructive water image in an X-ray film, root development as well as 2-dimensional water movement toward the root was analyzed. Spatial water image was constructed from 180 CT projection images, taken at an interval of one degree while rotating the sample, through a CCD camera. In the case of a soybean root, there was a water gradient toward a root in soil and gave minimum value at about 1 mm far from the surface of a root. The water absorbing part in a root was gradually shifted downward with the root development. We also present real time water movement by PETIS, where water was labeled with a positron emitting nuclide, 15O. The transportation of 15O-water within a plant was relatively slow and water uptake was observed only at the lowest internode, between a root and the first leaf, during 20-minute measurement.

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JPC - Journal of Planar Chromatography - Modern TLC
Authors: Wolfgang Schulz, Wolfram Seitz, Stefan Weiss, Walter Weber, Martin Böhm, and Dirk Flottmann

Combination of HPTLC with the bioluminescence test using Vibrio fischeri enables effective screening for bioactive substances in unknown samples. This paper describes several applications in environmental testing using bioluminescence inhibition in HPTLC. The samples were extracted by solid-phase extraction or applied directly to the TLC plate. After chromatography of the samples the plates were immersed in a suspension of bioluminescence bacteria. The bioactive substances were identified as dark or light zones in comparison with the background of the plate. By the use of this method several types of sports field granule were compared for their toxicity toward Vibrio fischeri . It was also possible to compare the bioactivity of expressway waste water or landfill leachate by use of the method. To evaluate the digital images taken by a CCD camera, inhibition chromatograms over the developed sample tracks were created.

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This paper reports the evaluation of a novel, low-cost imaging device for use in TLC — a commercial flat-bed scanner modified by inclusion of a 366-nm UV light source. Images of native fluorescence were recorded after separation of a test dye. Video densitometry was performed on the digital data obtained and compared with slit densitometry measurements. The images obtained were high quality, easily processed and archived. The spatial and intensity resolution of the recorded images were greater than those recorded using current commercial TLC video documentation equipment employing analog CCD camera technology. Several observations were made. The linear range obtained by use of videodensitometric analysis was greater than that obtained from slit densitometry when a higher loading of analyte was used. The precision data for the whole analytical process were in close agreement when using a high loading of analyte whereas the converse was found at lower loadings. Detection sensitivity for the compounds studied were equivalent for the two techniques.

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Abstract  

The thermal behavior of hydrogels synthesized by solution polymerization between acrylamide, acrylic acid and diglycidyl acrylate (DGA) as a crosslinking agent was investigated. The structure of the hydrogel can be tightly controlled with the reaction temperature. This method produces a new type of hydrogels, which exhibit well defined structures at various scales of length simultaneously. These multi-structured hydrogels are hydrophilic, elastic, water insoluble, and soft polymers with an anisotropic optical response. The structure was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarized light microscopy (PLM) and macroscopic visualization (CCD camera). In addition, structural transitions in the hydrogels were monitored by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC). Severe heating tests in an adiabatic oven were performed to analyze decomposition of the material. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to qualitatively analyze the hydrogels samples exposed to a sudden thermal treatment.

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Abstract  

We present the real-time RI imaging and analyzing system to study the kinetics of nutrient uptake manner in a living plant. The system allowed light condition for the up-ground part of the plant and continuous dark condition for the root part, therefore, light/dark cycles was set as 16/8 h. There was 9,000 lx of LED lights in an aluminum container where the plant was set. The container was shielded well so that there was no light leakage to damage highly sensitive CCD camera which detected beta-rays from the sample. With this system, RI imaging was able to perform for 6 days without damaging the activity of the plant.

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