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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: R.V Salamon, É. Vargáné-Visi, Cs.D. András, Zs. Csapóné Kiss, and J. Csapó

The addition of synthetic CLA is a possible way in order to compose foods enriched with conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs). The most environmental friendly methods for CLA synthesis are based on microbial biosynthesis. With homogeneous catalysis using organometallic catalysts (Ru and Rh complexes) high (approximately 80%) yields were obtained with high selectivity related to bioactive isomers. The heterogeneous catalysis has the advantage that at the end of the reaction there is no need for a supplementary separation operation or recycling of the catalyst. In heterogeneous process, the maximum yield may even be higher than 90% and the selectivity remains quite high as the reaction conditions are optimized. The substrates for obtaining CLAs are, in general, linoleic acid or alkyl linoleates and the catalysis is acidic. The yield and the selectivity depend on the strength and the type of acidic sites, as well as on the size distribution of the particles. Beside the existing catalytic methods, a photocatalytic process with UV and visible light irradiation with iodine promoter can be applied.

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conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or linoleic acid rich oil on the CLA content of lamb tissues. Small Rum. Res. , 36 , 25–31. Weselake R.J. Effect of dietary supplementation with either

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179 184 Benjamin, H., Storkson, J.M., Liu, W. & Pariza, M.W. (1992): The effect of conjugated dienoic derivates of linoleic acid (CLA) on mouse forestomach protein kinase C

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. Gnadig , S. Rickert , R. Sebedio , J.L. & Steinhart , H. ( 2001 ): Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA

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vegetable oils. In addition, AMF is the major dietary source of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in human diet. CLA are positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic fatty acid, with a conjugated double-bond system [ 12 ]. Epidemiological studies have

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Corl, B. A., Baumgard, L. H., Dwyer, D. A., Griinari, J. M., Phillips, B. S. and Bauman, D. E. (2001): The role of DL9-desaturase in the production of cis-9, trans -11 CLA. J. Nutr. Biochem. 12, 622-630. The role of DL9

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. Herná Ndez-Martín , E. & Otero , C. ( 2008 ): Enzymatic re-esterification of lower glycerides from soybean oil with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) . J. Agr. Food Chem. , 57 , 701 – 708

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. A. and Bauman, D. E. (2002): Trans-10, cis-12 CLA decreases lipogenic rates and expression of genes involved in milk lipid synthesis in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 85 , 2155–2163. Bauman D. E

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The paper gives a brief summary of the Czech contribution to the Carpathian Linguistic Atlas (CLA) project: a) the priority of the idea of the CLA itself (Vašek, The Vth International Congress of Slavists, Sophia, 1963); b) the dual linguistic influence of the Carpathian pastoral colonization (CPC) on the language of the local Carpathian settlement as a vital specific feature of the colonization (Vašek, La colonisation et la langue, Brno, 1964); c) the main character of the CLA is a linguistic one (Vašek, International Carpathological Symposium, Problemy karpatskogo jazykoznanija, Moskva, 1973); d) the written proposal to establish the Research Committee on Slavonic Language Contacts at the International Board of Slavists (Vašek, The VIth International Congress of Slavists, Warsaw-Lomža, 1973); e) the proposal of the original double scaled blank map of the CLA (Vašek and Marešová, Brno, The IXth Meeting of the International Board of Editors of the CLA, Moscow, 1981) and the printing ofthis map in Czechoslovakia (Vašek and Marešová, The Geographical Institute of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Brno, 1982). The bad political situation caused that the Czech national centre in Brno was not allowed to publish (at least one) map volume of the CLA or even to organize (at least one) international meeting of the IBE.

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A study was undertaken to determine the genetics of corn leaf aphid (CLA) resistance in barley under controlled conditions with artificial inoculation at adult plant stage. Inheritance of CLA resistance was investigated in five resistant barley genotypes (EB921, EB2507, Manjula, DL529 and K144) in crosses with susceptible parent Alfa93 in F1, F2, F3 and backcross (BCF1) generations. The aphid inoculation was done using the brush method as well as the detached leaf method. Individual plants were classified in resistant, moderately resistant, susceptible and highly susceptible categories base on number per shoot as well as multiplication of CLA on any of the fresh, young leaf. The plants scored as resistant or moderately resistant were observed twice more at 10 days interval to confirm their reaction. Resistance was governed by a single dominant gene in EB921, DL529 and K144, while it was monogenic recessive in Manjula and EB2507. These diverse sources may be used in breeding for CLA resistance in barley improvement programme.

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