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We have investigated the use of pressurized planar electrochromatography (PPEC) and planar chromatography (TLC) for reversed-phase separation of a mixture of acetylsalicylic acid, caffeine, and acetaminophen. The mixture was separated on C18 plates; the mobile phase was prepared from acetonitrile (ACN), buffer, and bidistilled water. The effects of operating conditions such as mobile phase composition, type of the stationary phase, and mobile phase buffer pH on migration distance, separation selectivity, and separation time in TLC and PPEC were compared. The results showed that pressurized planar electrochromatography of these drugs is characterized by faster separation, better performance, and different separation selectivity. In conclusion, PPEC is a very promising mode for future application in pharmaceutical analysis.

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Summary

We present a planar chromatographic separation method for the compounds caffeine, artemisinin, and equol, separated on high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) silica gel plates. As solvents for separation, methyl t-butyl ether and cyclohexane (1:1, V/V) have been used for equol, cyclohexane and ethyl acetate (7:3, V/V) for artemisinin, and ethyl acetate and acetone (7:3, V/V) for caffeine. After separation, the plate was scanned with a very specific time of flight-direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (TOF-DART-MS) system using the (M + 1)+ signals of equol, artemisinin, and caffeine. The (M + 1) peak of artemisinin at 283.13 m/z is clearly detectable, which is the proof that DART-MS is applicable for the quantitative determination of rather instable molecules. The planar set-up of DART source, HPTLC plate and detector inlet in a line showed higher sensitivities compared to desorption at an angle. The optimal detector voltage increases with the molar mass of the analyte, thus an individual determination of optimal detector voltage setting for the different analyte is recommended to achieve the best possible measurement conditions. In conclusion, DART-MS detection in combination with an HPTLC separation allows very specific quantification of all three compounds.

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Arnaud MJ (2005): Caffeine. In: Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition, ed Caballero B, Elsevier, Oxford, pp. 247–253 Arnaud MJ Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition 2005

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References B arone , J.J. & R oberts , H.R. ( 1996 ): Caffeine consumption . Food Chem. Toxicol. , 34 , 19 – 129 . D aly , J

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Camargo, M.C., Toledo, M.C. & Farah, H.G. (1999): Caffeine daily intake from dietary sources in Brazil. Food Addit. Contam. , 16 , 79–87. Farah H

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Tomáš Slanina, Michal Miškeje, Filip Tirpák, Martyna Błaszczyk, Grzegorz Formicki, and Peter Massányi

References Barakat , I. A. , Danfour , M. A. , Galewan , F. A. and Dkhil , M. A. ( 2015 ): Effect of various concentrations of caffeine, pentoxifylline, and

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hypoglycemia is common in T1DM on the night following exercise and, as in a vicious cycle, the response to exercise on the following session is impaired ( 10 ). There are many substances that interfere with the glycemic control, such as caffeine (1

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Lenka Findoráková, Katarína Győryová, Jana Kovářová, V. Balek, F. Nour El-Dien, and L. Halás

Abstract  

Novel zinc(II) complex compounds of general formula Zn(C6H5COO)2·L2 (where L=caffeine (caf) and urea (u)) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy. The thermal behaviour of the complexes was studied during heating in air by thermogravimetry. It was found that the thermal decomposition of the anhydrous Zn(II) benzoate compounds with bioactive ligands was initiated by the release of organic ligands at various temperatures. On further heating of the compounds up to 400°C the thermal degradation of the benzoate anions took place. Zinc oxide was found as the final product of the thermal decomposition of all zinc(II) benzoate complex compounds heated to 600°C. Results of elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy and thermogravimetry are presented.

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Caffeine has been found to display a low-temperatureβ- and a high-temperatureα-modification. By quantitative DTA the following data were determined: transformation temperature 141±2°; enthalpy of transition 4.03±0.1 kJ·mole−1; enthalpy of fusion 21.6±0.5 kJ·mole−1; molar heat capacity
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\begin{array}{*{20}c} {{\vartheta \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {\vartheta {^\circ C}}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} {^\circ C}}} & {100(\beta )} & {100(\alpha )} & {150(\alpha )} & {100(\alpha )} \\ {{{C^\circ _\mathfrak{p} } \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{C^\circ _\mathfrak{p} } {J \cdot K^{ - 1} \cdot mole^{ - 1} }}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} {J \cdot K^{ - 1} \cdot mole^{ - 1} }}} & {271 \pm 9} & {287 \pm 10} & {309 \pm 11} & {338 \pm 10} \\ \end{array}$$ \end{document}
in good accord with drop-calorimetric data. For the constants of the equation log (p/Pa)=−A/T+B, static vapour pressure measurements on liquid and solidα-caffeine, and effusion measurements on solidβ-caffeine yielded:
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\begin{array}{*{20}c} {A = 3918 \pm 37; 5223 \pm 28; 5781 \pm 35K^{ - 1} } \\ {B = 11.143 \pm 0.072; 13.697 \pm 0.057; 15.031 \pm 0.113} \\ \end{array}$$ \end{document}
. The evaporation coefficient ofβ-caffeine is 0.17±0.03.
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, and minimize the development of resistance to antibiotics [ 2 ]. The fixed-dose combination of paracetamol (PCM) and caffeine (CF) is primarily employed in conditions such as a migraine headache [ 4 ], which is a chronic and common disorder

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