At first glance, the Catholic identity of a Cardinal should not be a complicated topic, particularly if we are dealing with a person who became one of the most famous symbols of Catholic resistance against communism during the Cold War Era. In the 1950s Cardinal József Mindszenty was regarded as one of the most prominent martyrs of the Catholic Church. This reputation emerged again in the early 1970s all over the world, particularly in North and South America, but also in Western Europe, Austria, and Germany. He was arrested, put on trial in 1949, imprisoned, allegedly tortured, was freed during the revolution of 1956, and spent the next 15 years of his life as an exile in the U. S. Embassy in Budapest. He died only four years later, in 1975, in his last exile in Vienna. But József Mindszenty, born József Pehm in 1892, stood also for a very specific understanding of Hungarian Catholicism: a particularly conservative, anti-liberal, legitimist, pre-Vatican II, reactionary, traditionalist and nationalist Catholicism. In my paper, I look at the case of Cardinal Mindszenty in order to explore the most important aspects and changes of Hungarian Catholic identity during the 20th century. I want to show that, contrary to the common view, most questions regarding Mindszenty and Hungarian Catholicism are still open and require further research.
“Catholic philosophy” has a threefold meaning. First, it refers descriptively to the understanding of philosophy throughout the history of Catholic Christianity. After the decline of Hellenism, philosophy in the Greek sense did not survive anywhere else than in Catholicism; the works of the Latin Fathers, the theologians of the Middle Ages, and the Catholic philosophers of the Renaissance and modern periods thereafter not only saved philosophy from historical disappearance but contributed to its revival and new developments. “Catholic philosophy”, in the second sense, is the historical matrix in which philosophy of our time has emerged. That is to say, the modern and contemporary meanings of philosophy are marked by their difference from theology properly so called. Thirdly, Catholicism has always considered philosophy as centrally important to the Catholic doctrine. No other Christian denomination has ever shown such an intense, complex, and systematic interest in maintaining and developing philosophy. Thus, “Catholic philosophy” has the third meaning of a historic achievement in which philosophy could grow into its modern forms. In this essay, I investigate the historical development and the contemporary possibilities of Catholic Philosophy.
The fact of Christianity’s negative attitude toward homosexual relations has not stopped a large number of gay and lesbian Christian believers from continuing to think of themselves as members of their respective denominations. In many American metropolitan settings, groups of homosexual Roman Catholics have formed a religious organisation named ‘Dign ty’ to ful fill a need for worship and socializing. Focusing on the Philadelphia branch of Dignity, this paper examines the reasons for the continued nvolvement by homosexual American Catholics in religion in general and in such an antagonistic religious nstitution in particular. The study of the sexual politics of this Dignity congregation has generated a new perspective which underscores the nsufficiency of the conventional terminology of „sectarian,” „popular,” or even „official,” religion for describing the vitality of lived religion. In response, I offer the term „vernacular religion ” which will be explained and assessed as a new approach in the search for understanding of any given community of believers and their various categories of religious belief. The relation of the study of vernacular religion to the Philadelphia Dignity community will be discussed through an examination of its history and developments, of the negotiated beliefs of its members, and its reactions to the institutional church, and to the AIDS crisis.
A dolgozat a katolikus hátterű kora 20. századi magyar pszichológusok szemléletének bemutatásán keresztül a mellett érvel, hogy a magyar kutatók sem egyetlen egységes változatát fogalmazták meg a „katolikus pszichológiának”, hanem különböző módon közelítettek a szaktudományos pszichológia kérdésköréhez. Ugyanakkor az ismertetett szerzők mind a szaktudomány önállósága mellett érveltek, s a modernizációs felhang keretében jellemző rájuk a funkcionalizmus és az arisztotelészi felfogás összekapcsolása, a gondolkodáslélektan előtérbe helyezése, az integratív személyiség felfogás és a gyakorlati funkcionalizmus:a nevelési reform és a gyermekközpontú, a fegyelmező neveléstől eltérő nevelési eszmények meghonosítása. A katolikus szellemi életben megnyilvánuló különböző áramlatok - politikai és eszmei áramlatok - megtalálják a saját helyüket a katolikus pszichológián belül. Fontos mozzanat ezek mögött mai szempontból az a felismerés, hogy nem volt szükségszerű ellentmondás a személyes katolikus meggyőződés, sőt a katolikus értelmiségi szerepvállalás és a modern pszichológia hirdetése, akár a kísérleti pszichológia piedesztálra állítása között. A különböző alternatívákban különböző személyiségek és értékbeli hozzáállások jelennek meg a katolikus táboron belül is.
Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein’s unpublished Nouvel essai esthétique was certainly written in the 1860s in Rome. Dedicated to Adélaïde-Louise d’Eckmühl, marquise de Blocqueville, it is composed of 4 chapters presenting both general issues on art and religion, and detailed presentation of nine arts. Among them, the chapter on music contains many ideas strongly connected to Liszt’s writings, e.g. influence of Fétis and Hegel, idea of progress, historicism, harmony, catholic music, symphonic music, opera, writings about music, piano, etc. The present article is a first attempt to establish connections between the Lisztian topics and the catholic-historicist aesthetics of the princess Sayn- Wittgenstein, which can be seen as a privileged source for the Neudeutsche Schule.
The article deals with art patronage of the bishops of Olomouc around 1600 and concentrates on meaning and functional aspects of bishops' artistic commissions. As the most important exponents of Catholicism the bishops tried to strengthen Catholic confession and religious life in the diocese and their artistic patronage played, besides another concrete political activities, a truly important role in the politics of confessionalization of the Catholic elite in Early Modern Bohemia and Moravia. Their artistic commissions (not only architecture, painting and sculpture, but also prints, books, pieces of music, art and crafts etc.) served as means of religious propaganda and polemic.
The Jesuit, István Szántó (Arator), who was a Hungarian father-confessor in Rome in the jubilee year of 1575, was engaged in establishing an independent Collegium Hungaricum to improve clerical training in the Eternal City in the second half of the 16th century. First, he succeeded since he managed to make the pope establish the Collegium despite the strong resistance from everywhere around. However, after a few months the pope unified the Collegium Hungaricum with the Collegium Germanicum because there was not a sufficient number of students from Hungary in Rome. Although the efforts of Szántó ended in failure, they had important effects on Hungarian Catholicism. For example, places were to provide for twelve Hungarian students in the united Collegium in the following centuries. In this paper, a brief review can be found about the writings of Szántó for the sake of the foundation of the Collegium Hungaricum.
This article deals with the problem of the religion of the ethnic Germans in Hungary. It is assumed that Catholicism serves as an important item of the ethnic identity of this minority from diachronic as well as from synchronic perspective. Catholic religion has the historic function to help the ethnic survival. Religion has a very important role to divide and to unite ethnic minorities and the majority. A great deal of the Germans settled in Hungary in the 18th century is Lutheran. Catholic and Lutheran Germans are divided by their religion, which can be seen at their marriage customs, too. Since the Hungarian majority is also Catholic, both Germans and Hungarians have the cult of the Blessed Virgin, who is held by the Hungarian believers as Patrona Hungarica. With the help of a shared religion with the majority, they could develop a basis for national feelings and for assimilation, too.
Hellemans , Staf 2001: From “Catholicism against modernity” to the problematic “modernity of Catholicism”. Ethical Perspectives 8 (2), 117–127.
From “Catholicism against modernity” to the problematic “modernity of
Joyce’s Dubliners (1916) embodies a harsh critique of the society in the Irish capital that is paralysed by Catholicism, by the English imperialism,
by enormous poverty and social wretchedness. Love is under these circumstances degenerated and perverted, partly due to the
Christian criminalization of sensual love, partly due to the egoistical and ruthless battle for survival of the individual
in the capitalistic bourgeoisie. The repression of love, which is brought about through the miserable social conditions and
the Christian persecution of sexuality, results in a degradation of love life, according to Joyce, that is clearly illustrated
by the extensive prostitution in the streets, which the author perceives to be a direct consequence of the religious condemnation
of erotic love. It is everyone for himself in this modern metropolis, so it is not only women who exercise mercantilist calculations
in love life, since men utilise love in the exploitation of others as well (cf. ‘Two Gallants’). Joyce reveals furthermore
how one of society’s most honoured institutions of love, matrimony, is nothing but state institutionalised prostitution that
ties the married couple to life in mutual bitterness and unhappiness. The impossibility of love and the grim hopelessness
of the socio-ideological conditions are in this manner mirroring each other in Dubliners.