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The Savirs, historical ancestors of the Chuvash, spent more than seven centuries in the Caucasus. In the mid-2nd century they were recorded there by Ptolemy, while in the 860s they were moving up the River Itil (Volga) after living in the North Caucasus-Don area. In the Hun era they fought now on the side of the Persians, now with the Byzantines. After the loss of Hunnish unity, the Savirs became the most powerful social entity in the region. On the basis of the sources, the author considers that the Savirs were very numerous: there may have been up to a million of them, counting warriors and their households.

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Five species of lichenized ascomycetes are reported from high mountainous Dagestan. Acarospora laqueata, Lecania ochronigra and Protoparmelia placentiformis are new to Russia and the Caucasus (the last two). Anamylopsora pulcherrima is the first record of the genus and species for the North Caucasus. Buellia centralis is the first record for the Caucasus and second for Russia. Our records considerably extended information about geography and ecology of presented species especially the very rare species Buellia centralis, Lecania ochronigra and Protoparmelia placentiformis. The characteristic features of specimens with information of their morphology, anatomy, ecology and world distribution are given.

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The diversity of the brachiopods in the Northern Caucasus significantly fluctuated throughout the Paleozoic-Mesozoic. Weak diversifications occurred in the Middle Cambrian, Late Silurian - Early Devonian, and Late Devonian - Early Carboniferous. Since the Late Permian brachiopod assemblages became quite diverse. The maximum number of species was reached in the Rhaetian. The Permian/ Triassic mass extinction and enigmatic Ladinian crisis, on the other hand, led to regional brachiopod demises. In the Jurassic - Early Cretaceous interval the diversity of brachiopods generally decreased. The strongest drops of species numbers occurred in the Toarcian and Berriasian following the Pliensbachian-Toarcian and end-Jurassic global mass extinctions, and in the Kimmeridgian due to the regional salinity crisis. It is evident that some of the regional brachiopod diversifications coincided with the development of rimmed shelves.

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. Sipos, J. (2001): Report on my Expedition in the Caucasus. In: Károly, L.-Kincses Nagy, É. (eds): Néptörténet-Nyelvtörténet . Szeged. Report on my Expedition in the Caucasus

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Jura Kavkaza Nauka Sankt-Peterburg [Jurassic of the Caucasus]. D.A. Ruban 2006 Taxonomic diversity dynamics of the

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-Kabardin school dictionary). Nalcik: Nart. Abdullayev, Ī. H. (1982): Tulpar. (Türkskiy Zoonim Tulpar na Severnom Kavkaze) (Tulpar. Turkish animal name Tulpar in North Caucasus). In: Cidalayev, N. S. (ed.): Tjurksko

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Caucasus in the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic — geodynamical analogs and new challenges]. A.V. Ershov M.-F. Brunet

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This paper discusses Early Byzantine clasps in the form of peacock, which occurred in modern Abkhazia and Kartli. These brooches date from the sixth and seventh centuries and meet with parallels among synchronous mediaeval antiquities. Peacock brooches discovered in the Southern Caucasus were imported directly from Byzantium. These finds indicate connections of the population of the Southern Caucasus and the Byzantine Empire.

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Transition economies that formerly were within the Soviet Union’s political and economic sphere exhibited high economic growth before the crisis. In part, increasing total-factor productivity (TFP), a’ residual’ growth factor commonly interpreted as reflecting technological progress, was behind higher growth rates. This paper zooms in on TFP’s contribution to growth in the transition countries of Central and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia, in order to identify which countries have established a knowledge-based growth path or have the potential to develop one in the near future. We start by looking at how the transition countries covered by the paper measure up according to traditional innovation input and output indicators. But the major part of our analysis focuses on identifying countries’ potential for future knowledge-based growth. Few transition economies have highly-developed innovation profiles. Analysis of the prerequisites for knowledge-based growth indicates that transition countries are at a systemic disadvantage relative to the US, the EU-15 and Japan, and have limited potential for knowledge-based growth.

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