Strawberry fruits of three cultivars viz. Camarosa, Chandler and Doughlas were used to prepare wine by four different methods (control, thermovinification, fermented on the skin and carbonic maceration). Physico-chemical characteristics of the cultivar Camarosa were rated superior to Chandler and Doughlas. The must from the fruits fermented on the skin gave the highest rate of fermentation and ethanol content. The application of various treatments improved the fermentation behaviour of treated strawberry musts compared to the control as revealed by their physico-chemical characteristics. Thermovinified wines had many desirable characteristics such as more total phenols, esters and colour with comparable amount of higher alcohols, volatile acids, ethyl alcohol, sugars and anthocyanin. The carbonic maceration resulted in wines with more alcohol, higher pH, lower acidity, lesser higher alcohol and volatile acids than other wines. Fermented on the skin treated wines were typical for higher amount of anthocyanin, lower reducing sugar and total sugar than the control wines. Thermovinified wines, irrespective of cultivars, scored the highest with respect to most of the sensory quality characteristics. Wines from Camarosa cultivar registered many desirable characteristics such as esters, optimum acidity, more red colour units with comparable contents of alcohol and total phenols, while Chandler cultivar had higher amount of ethyl alcohol, more phenols, anthocyanin than other cultivars. Some of these differences are correlated with their initial characteristics, while others have been influenced by method of vinification. Based on the physico-chemical and sensory qualities, the wines from cv. Camarosa was rated the best, though the wines of all the cultivars were acceptable.
We established microcosms of crop species (Borago officinalis, Brassica oleracea, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Lycopersicon esculentum, Ocimum basilicum, Tagetes patula, Zinnia violacea) in a richness gradient from 1 to 8 species to determine the effects of initial richness on the richness and composition of. weed. communities emerging from artificial seed banks. Most crop species performed better in mixture than in monoculture. The richness of . weeds. was not significantly related to the initial diversity of crops, but weed richness did appear to be a function of crop species (even after accounting for variation in crop and weed biomass). The composition of weeds was significantly related to initial crop composition, although not to interactions between crop species.
Three tissue-equivalent cylindrical wound phantoms with varying activities of DU metal imbedded at varying depths were used to compare the efficiencies of a bismuth germinate (BGO) detector, a sodium iodide (NaI), and two identical wound probes with smaller sodium iodide crystals. Our results show that the BGO detector had the highest efficiency (1.0·10-3) and the lowest minimum detectable activity (MDA = 5.8 kBq) for the shallow depth DU phantom, relative to the other detectors. The BGO detector also had the highest peak efficiencies (1.7·10-3 and 5.8·10-4) and the lowest MDAs (3.5 and 10.0 kBq) for the medium and deep phantoms, respectively. Other detectors' performance data are presented.
Authors:É. Kónya, G. Bujdosó, M. Berki, M. Nagy-Gasztonyi, and N. Adányi
Two Hungarian and two introduced walnut cultivars were examined as fresh samples and under storage. Some important compositional data were determined in order to evaluate the differences between the cultivars and the changes after storage. The cultivars’ oil contents were the same, but there was some difference in fatty acid composition; ‘Alsószentiváni 117’ had a higher mono-unsaturated fatty acid content than the others. Considering the oxidative stability, ‘Alsószentiváni 117’ contained good properties in all stages (induction time equals or higher than 10 h). Lower antioxidant capacity was measured in ‘Chandler’ samples compared to the others. ‘Alsószentiváni 117’ has higher α- and γ-tocopherol contents than the other cultivars studied. Two different drying methods were also compared in case of the Hungarian cultivars. The changes in compositional data showed no tendencies. We found that Hungarian cultivars were at least as valuable as the introduced ones.
CHANDLER, Jennifer 1999: 'Pilgrims and Shrines' in The Mourning for Diana , Tony WALTER, ed. (Oxford & New York: Berg), 135-155.
DAVIE, Grace and MARTIN, David 1999: 'Liturgy and Music' in The Mourning for Diana , Tony WALTER, ed. (Oxford
Authors:Zsuzsanna Koncz, Z. Naár, A. Kiss, and Á. Szécsi
Nicholson, P., Simpson, D. R., Wilson, A. H., Chandler, E., Thomsett, M.: Detection and differentiation of trichothecene-and enniatin-producing
species on small-grain cereals. European J Plant Pathol
, 503–514 (2004