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is growing visibility in the past two decades of additional representations of psychedelic mushrooms in Christian art (see Brown & Brown, 2016 ; Hoffman, Ruck, & Staples, 2002 ; Irvin, 2008 ; Rush, 2011 ; Ruck, Staples, & Heinrich, 2001

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Bachman Z., Bachmann B. The early Christian burial chambers of Pécs (in Hungarian), Műemléklap , No. 1, 2001, pp. 5–7. Bachman Z. Architectural conservation Hungary’s Roman underworld extensive architectural

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. Unterhaltung und Vergnügen im Altertum. Stuttgart 1998. Fülep 1968 = F. Fülep : Early Christian gold glasses in the Hungarian National Museum. ActaAntHung 16 (1968) 401

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During the Roman Empire, when an autonomous Etruscan culture had disappeared long ago, aspects of the old Etruscan religion were still surviving and had been integrated in the Roman traditional religion: the haruspices, acting as diviners for public or private purposes all over the Roman empire, could interpret prodigies, what Roman priests and even augurs did not. When, with the Christians, a new religion arrived which risked to overthrow the old national religion of the Romans, Etruscan religious tradition played an important role against the rise of Christianity: with the sacred books of the Etruscans, with the prophets who were alleged to have created the Etruscan religious tradition, the Romans could find in their own heritage what could match the Bible of the Christians or their prophets. Unsurprisingly, haruspices were active in the resistance movement against the new religion.

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The aim of this paper is to bring into discussion some data concerning early Christian inscriptions from the Iberian Peninsula on the differentiation of Vulgar Latin, focusing on the several methods and procedures of collecting data (in corpora and databases), and the interpretation as regards Latin dialectology. The low number of specific dialectal traits in early Christian funerary epigraphy contrasts with specific local features that can be found when we put the epigraphic texts into their social and cultural context. We may conclude that Latin dialectal evidence in Late Antiquity should be evaluated according to its context. We can understand both common and specific traits of the written language from this perspective.

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The Russian fairy tale has endured centuries of evolution. It was part of an oral tradition and as such, none of its details were static. A single story was told by generations of storytellers over a period of centuries. In this way, the tale is layered with beliefs and customs from many periods reaching far back to the pre-Christian, matriarchal times. While weakness and submissiveness are the preferred qualities of Russian folk heroines, many tales portray women of strength. The introduction of Christianity to 10th-century Russia extinguished there a strong matriarchal tradition. Matriarchal cultures are traditionally linked with mysti-cism and magic. Given the hypothesis of an early Russian matriarchy, the paper traces magi-cal figures like Baba Yaga and her sisters back to a time when there was no need to portray them as evil. It is only after the priests come that she was cast out and labeled evil. The Rus-sian fairy tale may appear to be vague, repetitious and hard on women, yet when these quali-ties are added together a magical transformation occurs that brings out lively and simplisti-cally beautiful images that give the tales that special Russian flavour.

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The New Testament parable of the “Prodigal Son” has many interpretations in literature and art. In this article I focus on two poetic examples: Rilke’s “Der Auszug des Verlorenen Sohnes” and Lea Goldberg’s “The Prodigal Son,” a cycle of three poems: “On the Road,” “In the House,” and “Repentance”. I will show the differences between the poets’ approaches to the parable. “The Parable of the Prodigal Son” is part of a series of parables in Luke 15–19. Most traditional Christian exegeses regard the prodigal son’s action as an act of sin and repentance. As we shall prove, Rilke and Goldberg employed the parable in different ways. Rilke used it as a springboard for his own ideas. He was interested in the moment of departure as a symbol of an infinite search for a new path. Goldberg remained closer to the biblical narrative, but she used the parable as a psychological platform to explore the prodigal son’s feelings on his return home, and his family’s reaction to his absence and homecoming.

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One hundred and eighty-seven metal samples, recovered from the fortified mission of Ste. Marie II and nearby villages on Christian Island, include 3 samples of native copper, 22 samples of European copper, 19 samples of brassy copper (8% Zn), 141 brass samples and 2 samples of lead. The European copper samples form 5 distinct chemical groups, possibly coming from 5 different copper kettles. The brassy copper samples are more difficult to group. When the brass samples are sorted by Ag and As, they form 2 major groupings: group 1 with high Ag and low As contents; group 2 with similar Ag and As contents through to low Ag and high As contents. Group 1 consisted of 11 chemical sub-groups and 6 outliers, while group 2 contributed 14 sub-groups and 14 outliers. This combines to give a total of 45 potentially unrelated brass chemistries, and leads to the possibility of as few as 20 different brass trading items (mainly kettles) from which the samples were cut. The small sub-sets of samples from the sites away from Ste. Marie II tended to fit within chemical groups found there, suggesting some possible inter-site contemporaneity.

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Politics and literature traditionally developed in a close contact with each other in Hungary. This paper argues that this intimacy had a particular reason: the fact that Latin educational ideals determined the way youth were brought up well into the 20th century. This had an impact on the way politics was understood here, including the fact that parliamentary debates were carried out in Latin well into the early 19th century.And this had a further consequence as well: literature was not viewed simply as an autonomous field of activity, aiming only at aesthetic merits, but as a way to reflect on the fate of the nation. Lawyers had a professional training in rhetoric and therefore they had a familiarity with classical literature, which led many of them towards their own creative writing. And professional writers, too, had no other education than that of the Latin Christian-Humanist model, which made them representatives of the nation, as well as followers of earlier, classical patterns of writing. These features played a major role in the formation of the two heroes of the paper, the poets Dániel Berzsenyi and Ferenc Kölcsey, who had an internal conflict between each other, but who both embodied the type of late humanist political writers, so characteristic of the reform era of this region of Central Europe.

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2002 Confessors ( confessores ): Christians, who did not renounce their religion during the persecution, not even in jail or under torture. After the

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