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the understanding of the association between these behaviors by investigating the co-occurrences of several substance use and potential behavioral addictions utilizing data from the Psychological and Genetic Factors of the Addictive Behaviors (PGA
Background and Aims
Recent work has studied multiple addictions using a matrix measure, which taps multiple addictions through single responses for each type.
The present study investigated use of a matrix measure approach among former alternative high school youth (average age = 19.8 years) at risk for addictions. Lifetime and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of 11 addictions reviewed in other work (Sussman, Lisha & Griffiths, 2011) was the primary focus (i.e., cigarettes, alcohol, other/hard drugs, eating, gambling, Internet, shopping, love, sex, exercise, and work). Also, the co-occurrence of two or more of these 11 addictive behaviors was investigated. Finally, the latent class structure of these addictions, and their associations with other measures, was examined.
We found that ever and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of these addictions was 79.2% and 61.5%, respectively. Ever and last 30-day co-occurrence of two or more of these addictions was 61.5% and 37.7%, respectively. Latent Class Analysis suggested two groups: a generally Non-addicted Group (67.2% of the sample) and a “Work Hard, Play Hard”-addicted Group that was particularly invested in addiction to love, sex, exercise, the Internet, and work. Supplementary analyses suggested that the single-response type self-reports may be measuring the addictions they intend to measure.
Discussion and Conclusions
We suggest implications of these results for future studies and the development of prevention and treatment programs, though much more validation research is needed on the use of this type of measure.
This study proposes an approach for visualizing a knowledge structure, the proposed approach creates a three-dimensional “Research focused parallelship network”, a “Keyword Co-occurrence Network”, and a two-dimensional knowledge map to facilitate visualization of the knowledge structure created by journal papers from different perspectives. The networks and knowledge maps can be depicted differently by choosing different information as the network actor, e.g. author, institute or country keyword, to reflect knowledge structures in micro-, meso-, and macro-levels, respectively. Technology Foresight is selected as an example to illustrate the method proposed in this study. A total of 556 author keywords contained in 181 Technology Foresight related papers have been analyzed. European countries, China, India and Brazil are located at the core of Technology Foresight research. Quantitative ways of mapping journal papers are investigated in this study to unveil emerging elements as well as to demonstrate dynamics and visualization of knowledge. The quantitative method provided in this paper shows a possible way of visualizing and evaluating knowledge structure; thus a computerized calculation is possible for potential quantitative applications, e.g. R&D resource allocation, research performance evaluation, science map, etc.
This study was carried out to determine the co-occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) and the sum of T2 and HT2 toxins in durum wheat samples belonging to eight cultivars grown in a national network experimental trials over a three-year period (2011–2013). The effect of several factors (cultivar, year and cultivation area) affecting the occurrence of the two types of mycotoxins and their relationship with several agronomic and grain quality parameters were assayed by statistical analysis (GLZ). The results highlighted the different trend of incidence and contamination rate of the two types of mycotoxins in relation to the cropping year and to the growing examined areas. Year and its interaction with the cultivation area was the most important factor affecting the DON contamination, whereas genotype and its interaction with the year mainly influenced T2+HT2 toxins contamination rate. DON and T2+HT2 contamination levels were not significantly correlated with each other. The evidence that the two types of mycotoxins were differently related with several agronomic and grain quality parameters could be connected to the effects of the respective fungal disease on wheat plant.
References Arita , H.T. 2015 . Multisite and multispecies measures of overlap, co-occurrence, and co-diversity . Ecography doi: 10.1111/ecog.01942
. Sussman , S. , Arpawong , T. E. , Sun , P. , Tsai , J. , Roohrbach , L. A. & Spruijt-Metz , D. ( 2014 ). Prevalence and co-occurrence of addictive behaviors among former alternative high school youth . Journal of Behavioral Addictions , 3