Authors:Qiang Xu, Andrea Majlingova, Martin Zachar, Cong Jin, and Yong Jiang
conditions. It is one of the fundamental properties of fire and should almost always be taken into account in any assessment of fire hazard since it significantly affects the development of the fire [ 1 ]. HRR is one of the properties of conecalorimetry. As
the results obtained by the method of conecalorimetry (
) and on the basis of the quantitative chemical determination of the specific emission of CO, CO 2 , HCN, NO 2 , HCl, and SO 2 at temperatures of 450, 550, and 750 °C, according to standard PN
Pyrolysis kinetics analysis of extractives, holocellulose, and lignin in the solid redwood over the entire heating regime was possible by specialized cone calorimeter test and new mathematical analysis tools. Added hardware components include: modified sample holder for the thin specimen with tiny thermocouples, the methane ring burner with stainless-steel mesh above cone heater, and the water vapor sensor in heated gas sampling lines. Specialized numerical deconvolutions were applied to the oxygen and water vapor analyzer signals to synchronize with the rapid-responding CO/CO2 analyzer signals. From this data, the mass flow rates of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen within the wood volatiles as function of time were obtained, which allowed deducing the mass flow rate of significant molecules of wood volatiles that have their origins in the wood constituents of extractives, holocellulose, and lignin. Accurate analytical solution of pyrolysis kinetics of appropriate competitive reactions that continuously conserved carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen mass flow rates was obtained for piecewise exponentially-shaped, spatially uniform temperature within the specimen as implemented conveniently in MS Excel spreadsheet.
Authors:Shibin Nie, Mingxu Zhang, Shujie Yuan, Guanglong Dai, Ningning Hong, Lei Song, Yuan Hu, and Xueli Liu
30 kW m −2 according to ISO-5660 standard procedures.
The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of the residue after the conecalorimetry experiment was taken using a DXS-10 scanning electron microscope produced by Shanghai Electron
Authors:Yiqun Fang, Qingwen Wang, Xiaoyan Bai, Weihong Wang, and Paul A. Cooper
PVC had a positive effect on thermal performance of the composite.
Flammability of the composite by conecalorimetry
The flammability parameters were conducted on a cone calorimeter, which is considered to be a good
Authors:J. Xu, C. Tian, Z. Ma, M. Gao, H. Guo, and Z. Yao
The effects of some kinds of metal ions used as chemical modifications on the thermal properties of the modified polyacrylonitrile
(PAN) fibers were studied by DTA, TG, GC and cone calorimetry. The apparent activation energies for the decomposition of the
unmodified and modified PAN fibers were determined using Kissinger equation and Broido equation.
Authors:P. Atkinson, P. Haines, G. Skinner, and T. Lever
The use of thermal methods in the study of flammability and fire retardant action is discussed and compared with the standard test methods. This paper provides an overview with examples drawn from continuing studies on polyester resins, especially those containing halogenated monomers. Thermal analysis and cone calorimetry results are complemented byanalysis of the gaseous and solid products using a wide range of analytical methods.
Authors:Grażyna Janowska, Agnieszka Kucharska-Jastrząbek, and Przemysław Rybiński
This article presents the effect of the method of NBR cross linking on the thermal properties, flammability and fire hazard of its nanocomposites containing modified montmorillonite (NanoBent or Nanofil), using test results obtained by means of a derivatograph, oxygen index and cone calorimetry. It has been found that the thermal stability and flammability of the nanocomposites investigated depend on both the rubber network structure and the type of montmorillonite. The nanoadditives used reduce the flammability of cross-linked nitrile rubber and considerably limit its fire hazard.
Complexes of cell–THPC–urea–ADP with transition metal ion Co2+ and lanthanide metal ions such as La3+, Ce4+, Nd3+ and Sm3+ have been prepared. The thermal behavior and smoke suspension of the samples are determined by TG, DTA, DTG and cone calorimetry.
The activation energies for the second stage of thermal degradation have been obtained by following Broido equation. Experimental
data show that for the complexes of cell–THPC–urea–ADP with the metal ions, the activation energies and thermal decomposition
temperatures are higher than those of cell–THPC–urea–ADP, which shows these metal ions can increase the thermal stability
of cell–THPC–urea–ADP. Moreover, these lanthanide metal ions can more increase thermal stability of samples than do the transition
metal ion Co2+. The cone calorimetry data indicate that the lanthanide metal ions, similar to transition metal Co2+, greatly decrease the smoke, CO and CO2 generation of cell–THPC–urea–ADP, which can be used as smoke suppressants.
stability, noticeable improvements were obtained through the introduction of organoclays in HDPE. For instance, Lu et al. investigated the morphology and flammability properties of γ-ray crosslinked maleated polyethylene/clay nanocomposites Conecalorimetry