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Introduction: what is constructivism? By the end of the 20th century, communicative language pedagogy had accumulated a plethora of methodological trends in language pedagogy. It is often described by practitioners as the most idealistic and

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Bortnyik und die „Műhely“ •

Das gebrauchsgrafische schaffen von Sándor Bortnyik (1893–1976) und das „Ungarische Bauhaus“

Acta Historiae Artium Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author:
Katalin Bakos

Bortnyik and the “Workshop”. The graphic design work of Sándor Bortnyik (1893–1976) and the “Hungarian Bauhaus”. In the Hungarian and international art history literature, Sándor Bortnyik is primarily known as an avantgarde artist attached to the circle of the MA (Today/Hungarian Art) periodical established by Lajos Kassák. Less well known is his role in the emergence of modernism in Hungary after 1925. From the very start, his painting and printmaking developed in parallel with and in interaction with his graphic design work. Having spent time in the milieu of the Bauhaus in Weimar between 1922 and 1924, upon his return to Hungary he continued to work not only in painting and printmaking, but also in book art and advertising, as well as photography, toy and furniture design, theatre work, and animation. The transcendence of the boundaries between genres, and even between branches of the arts, and the mutual influence between traditional art problems and processes and new media, are among the characteristic and still influential aspects of the modern culture of objects and visuality that were brought about by the twentieth-century avantgarde movements, and which continued in their wake. The work produced by Bortnyik, who believed that art played a role in shaping society, evolved in this spirit. His private graphic design school, the “Workshop” (in Hungarian: Műhely), was the representative in Hungarian visual culture of the Bauhaus concept of practice-based art training and functionalism, which fed off the ideas of Constructivism. The study provides a brief overview of the later development of his career, and his turn away from the genre of graphic design towards the direct communication of social, and later ideological content in painting and in printmaking.

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The avant-gardes of the nineteen twenties are discussed in the art historical literature as the art products of a rarely upbeat decade, which featured great utopian aspirations and progressive art between the wake of World War I and the Nazi takeover in Germany, as well as the consolidation of Stalinism in the Soviet Union. This essay depicts the decade as being far from a homogenous period, demonstrating that the early internationalism and sense of unlimited possibilities gave way, in or around 1923, to less idealistic, more pragmatic views and practices in even the avant-garde. If examined in this framework, the reception of avant-garde artists and works in the late 1920s that had been enthusiastically embraced in the first years of the decade, was understandably cooler. Professional eminence was overwriting great ideas. The lack of the earlier fervor had disappeared, not because the art was worse, but on account of the new Zeitgeist that brought about the new moral idea of utilitarianism, requiring that the artists be, first of all, of use to the community. Several artists and art writers suddenly turned against those ideas and art that they had only a short time earlier held in the highest esteem.

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shortcomings of different accounts of models, and whether any of them is fit to serve as a guidance to proper conduct for economists. Roughly, these accounts can be divided along the isolationism-constructivism line . However, the borderline is not sharp and

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This thesis aims at offering solutions for the present structuralist and hermeneutic anomalies of literary science. Relying on the epistemology of empirical literary science, radical constructivism and the constructivist theory of language, it asserts the view that meaning is not to be considered as part of the text. Its primary goal is to eliminate the anomalies of meaning, evaluation and historicity from the discourse of literary science. It introduces the theory of autopoietic systems and presents the non-conservative approach to literary science. Finally, it outlines the meta-and object theories of non-conservative literary historiography, and thoroughly argues for a perception of the past as an intellectual construction made by communities of historiographers.

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In the midst of an increasingly global culture it is necessary to construct a local narrative because nobody else but local scholars will construct it. If, for example, the history of Hungarian Modernism is described in the terms of the West European artistic currents only, as a journey from realism to impressionism and post-impressionism to art nouveau to symbolism to expressionism, cubism, constructivism and so forth, as we have been doing it for decades, some of the most significant Hungarian artists are remaining unacknowledged. There is hardly any international category for Egry, Vajda, Farkas, Kondor or Veszelszky, to mention but a few names; but even those Hungarian artists who more or less fit into the above stylistic brackets are getting a simplified reading and understanding. It is the collective task of local art historians to construct their distinctive narrative.

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A kilencvenedik életévét a közeljövőben betöltő professor emeritus Bonta János DSc kutatásainak és előadásainak favorizált anyagát dióhéjba foglalva összegezi. A téma az európai avantgárd építészet a holland De Stijltől a szovjet konstruktivizmusig, az észak-európai A. Aaltótól a Bauhaus-iskolán át a Mediterráneumig‚ Itália fasisztoid modernjéig és a magányos művész Le Corbusier plasztikus művészetéig, rámutatva mindezeknek a magyar modern építészetre gyakorolt hatására. A XX. század első évtizedeinek fejődési vonalát felvázolva megállapítható, hogy a különböző irányzatok heves, kiélezett formában jelentkeznek, majd az idő előrehaladásával lecsillapodnak és egymástól sokat tanulva beleilleszkednek az általános trendbe. A modern építészetnek ez az első avantgárd korszaka 1932–34 között véget ért, hol politikai okokból, hol a szakma belső fejlődésének folyományaként.

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Informed by constructivism, the present qualitative case study first aimed to explore the effectiveness of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) instruction, as the case of the study, at a Hungarian university to understand the strengths, weaknesses, and difficulties that EFL teacher trainees (TTs) experience during their studies. Second, it aimed to investigate the perceived usefulness of EAP instruction in preparing EFL TTs for their future careers. This paper examines the case of five Hungarian EFL TTs' perceptions of EAP instruction with the help of semi-structured interviews to see the importance of EAP education in both the TTs' studies and in their future careers. To this end, through purposeful sampling, five fourth-year TTs were invited to participate in the study to obtain a deep understanding of EAP instruction from their points of view. The results revealed that EFL TTs recognize the purpose and importance of the university EAP instruction and hold favorable views towards the teacher training program in general and EAP instruction in particular. Moreover, they considered the EAP courses as crucial in their future success as EFL teachers. However, they complained about several issues such as lack of practice opportunities, clear-cut standards, and EAP-specific materials. Hopefully, the results will provide valuable insights into the Hungarian EFL TT program's success in preparing competent future teachers.

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A kognitív tudomány két nagyobb irányzatra bontható: a reprezentácionista és a nem-reprezentácionista paradigmákra. A reprezentácionista megközelítésen belül két nagyobb tábor különül el: az amodális és a modális megközelítések. Az áttekintés célja a főbb elméletek ismertetése, illetve a nyelvi szemantika értelmezése ezekben. A dolgozatban különös figyelmet szentelek a Barsalou (1999) által javasolt perceptuális szimbólumrendszer-elméletnek, mely szerint a fogalmi feldolgozást az agy modalitásspecifikus rendszerei végzik. Ezzel ellentétes álláspontot képvisel Fodor (1998), aki szerint elemi fogalmaink egy része bonthatatlan fogalmi atomként fogható fel, melyek érzékszerveinktől független szimbólumokban tárolódnak. Végezetül kitekintek azon idegtudományi paradigmára is (Maturana és Varela radikális konstruktivizmusa), amely teljes mértékben elveti a reprezentációk létezését.

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The paper aims to clarify connections among the terms designated in the title on the basis of a well-known passage of the Aristotelian corpus (Politics I 2. 1253a7–18). The first part of the argumentation unfolds mainly through conceptual explanations and conceptual distinctions, during which some relevant claims of Aristotleʼs other works (primarily the biological and logical writings) are also taken into consideration. The main question of this part is directed to the difference between man and other living beings. The difference, as it will appear, lies in the specific performance of human speech (logos), contrasted with the performance of the animal voice (phōnē). In the second part, the reconstruction of Aristotelian theory based on close textual reading is complemented by references to some later but theoretically insightful contexts, especially with regard to the field of politics in the narrower sense. Conceptions of social constructivism (Berger and Luckmann), philosophical anthropology (Gehlen), political philosophy (Arendt), and philosophical hermeneutics (Heidegger and Gadamer) will primarily come into play.

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