The presence of excess uranium-235 was detected in many of the rain samples collected at Fayetteville (36°N, 94°W), Arkansas, during the period between April 1983 and March 1984. The experimental data indicate that the uranium-235 originated from the nuclear reactor on board the Soviet satellite Cosmos-1402, which fell over the South Atlantic Ocean on 7 February 1983.
Radiochemical measurements of239,240Pu were carried out for a total of 57 individual rain and snow samples collected at Fayetteville (36 °N, 94 °W), Arkansas, during the period between November 1984 and June 1986. The results indicate that the fallout of plutonium observed during the past three years is due, primarily, to the nuclear debris originating from the 7 February 1983 burn-up of the nuclear-powered Soviet satellite Cosmos-1402.
The external orientation of the Mithraic sanctuaries shows a great variety and heterogeneity. The internal orientation of the sanctuaries suggested by the cult image, however, shows a great homogenity and uniformity. The internal structure is organised on the possible axial line drawn from the entrance to the cult image, and continues beyond that. We can establish that the interior of a mithraeum is oriented along the ‘North-South – East-West’ frame of reference by the cult image.
The representation of the “Cosmos” in the sanctuary portrays only the visible, sensorial world. The known and organised “Cosmos” is the sanctuary itself, the ‘northern part’ of the Mithraic ‘Universe’ with its own inner coordinates.
The ‘Anti-Cosmos’, the Underworld, had been abolished from the ‘Mithraic Universe’, completely unmentioned by literary sources. After the vertical North-South and horizontal East-West orientation we can consider, that the cult image also as a partition, divides the ‘Mithraic Universe’ up into ‘northern’ and ‘southern’ parts. The ‘northern part’, as it is displayed, the ordered part of the ‘Universe’, or the “Cosmos” itself is represented by the shrine. Its opposite, the ‘southern part’, the disordered part of the ‘Universe’, or ‘Anti-Cosmos’ is absent on the cult image.
The Tauroctony prevents the specifically represented Underworld and its principles to manifest, creating the opportunity for the initiates to continue their eternal life in the living and organized part of the ‘Universe’, in the “Cosmos”.
Increasing trends of the concentrations of234U,235U and238U in rain observed during the period between April 1984 and June 1985 at Fayetteville (36°N, 94°W), Arkansas, and peak concentrations of234U and235U observed in a number of rain samples collected during the months of May and June 1985 appear to be the effects of delayed fallout from the 1982 eruption of El Chichón volcano and the 1983 fall of the nuclear-powered satellite Cosmos-1402, respectively.
Authors:P. Kuroda, I. Essien, and Deig-nevy Sandoval
A marked increase in the concentration of238U in rain was observed at Fayetteville (36 °N, 94 °W), Arkansas, after the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. The fallout of natural uranium observed during the summer months of 1980 can be attributed to the 18 May 1980 events, which ejected an amount of ash material on the order of 4 km3 or about 8·1015 grams into the atmosphere.234U and235U were found to be highly enriched relative to238U in several rain samples collected at Fayetteville, Arkansas, prior to the volcanic eruption. The anomalous uranium seems to have originated from the Soviet satellite Cosmos-954, which fell over Canada, on 24 January 1978. The effect of the 25th Chinese nuclear test, which occurred on 16 October 1980, on the concentrations of uranium isotopes in rain appears to have been insignificant.
In Daoist mysticism, the body plays a much more central role than in comparative Western models. This is especially clear in the tradition of Daoism called inner alchemy, which arose in the Song dynasty and has remained dominant both among monastic and lay practitioners to the present day. In this model, the internal energies of the person are gradually and systematically refined from grosser, easily felt vibrations and secretions to pure qi, the original cosmic energy as present in the individual, and from there to spirit, the divine power that pervades the universe. Adepts transform who they are as persons to become one with the Dao, but they do not do it merely through mental reorientation. Their entire physical structure changes as the powers of the cosmos manifest in them and the Dao takes over their being. Mystical experience in this context is thus very much an embodied event.
The paper which focuses on a myth of Pythagorean origin transformed by Clement of Alexandria (Protr. 1, 1, 2: a cicada saves the lyric performance of Eunomos, which was in danger because of a broken string), and on a Pythagorean symbol treated in the Stromata (5, 5, 27: the cicada as the synonym of Logos) wants to emphasize the importance of the Pythagorism for him. Clement's views on music and harmony as principles of the cosmos, on kinship of the livings, on transmission of knowledge by symbols recall ideas generally associated with Pythagoras. The father attributes eminent role to Pythagoras among the Greeks having certain notions about God. His image of the Pythagorean “believer” contributes to the portrait of the real Gnostic.
Cette article interroge sur l’utilisation des images bibliques au sein de l’œuvre de Charles Nodier, pionnier du conte fantastique
en France. D’après une approche comparée les images bibliques originales sont confrontées avec les images transposées au sein
du récit fantastique. L’analyse s’intéresse à la conjonction entre narration, emprunt des images bibliques et le résultat
de cet emprunt dans une image modifiée qui fait référence à l’image original tout en participant dans un nouveau réseau de
signification. L’intertextualité des emprunts témoigne d’une créativité littéraire qui s’exprime dans une nouvelle cosmogonie
fantastique qui n’hésite pas à se servir d’un monde biblique afin de façonner une nouvelle interprétation du surnaturel.
Porphyry's Cave of Nymphs is dedicated to deciphering the philosophical and theological significance of the cave described by Homer in the Thirteenth Canto of the Odyssey. However, within the exegesis of the Homeric cave awaits another exegesis concerning the cave in which Mithras sacrifices the bull and in which the initiation of the worshippers and the common meal take place.
According to Porphyry, the cave of the Nymphs is the place in which the worshippers were initiated into the platonic mystery of the descent and ascent of souls. Mithras, assimilated to the Demiurge of the Timaeus, generates souls by killing the bull he has caught, ridden and dragged into the cave which symbolises the cosmos. The souls, which are created by the bull/moon like bees in a sort of bougonia (cf. Virgil, Georgics IV), and which are animated by his blood, descend into the cycle of generation and incarnation and are dragged down by Boreas, the cold wind that keeps them cool in the place of earthly generation. After successive reincarnations the warm wind of Notus dissolves the carnal vestments that imprison them and returns them to the heat of the Sun.
Conclusion. After the comparison between the text of Porphyry and the CIMRM will show that the theme of the descent and ascent of souls is very weak in Mithraic finds, and the reading of tauroctony as bougonia remains deprived of iconographic evidence. To sum up, The Cave of the Nymphs is more relevant to the history of Platonism than to the history of Mithraicism.
In this paper I focus on dualistic creation stories, but without an attempt at an all-European overview. The analysis is confined to Swedish, Hungarian and Russian cultures, and references are made to various genres of literary fiction, folk legends, religious folk epic songs and annals. In the background of these examples the religious ideology of medieval bogomilism can be traced. “The Legend of Småland”, a chapter in Selma Lagerlöf’s children’s novel “The Wonderful Adventures of Nils”, draws on a dualistic cosmogonic myth of apocryphal traditions. This myth represents a modified variant of an etiological, dualistic belief. Satan is replaced by Saint Peter, who is believed to have created the mountains, which are symbolic of chaos, in the plain called Småland. In contrast, the plain was created by God. In the mythological view of the world, the plain is symbolic of the world of order, i.e. cosmos. The motif of soil or sand brought up from the bottom of the sea as well as the cooperation of the Creator and his Demiurge in the creation myth may be part of the ancient heritage in Hungarian mythology, or the motifs of the dualistic creation myth may have been borrowed later in the new homeland from nearby or distant neighbours whose tradition had been deeply affected by bogomilism. In the Russian Primary Chronicle, at the year 1071, an apocryphal story can be read in which magicians (‘volchvy’) present their ideas concerning the creation of man in accordance with the dualistic concept of Bogomils. The human body was created by Satan, from a bunch of straw hurled down from Heaven by God, and it was God who placed the soul in the body. Certain textual variants of “The Book of the Depths” (‘Golubinaja kniga’), a Russian religious folk epic, describe the single combat between Truth (‘Pravda’) and Falsehood (‘Krivda’). This combat can be interpreted, although indirectly, as the Bogomil tenet of the fight between Logos (Jesus) and Satan.