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The consequences of Crassus’ invasion of Mesopotamia in 54–53 BCE were unanticipated and unintended; however, his disastrous failure shocked the Roman world and suddenly established the Parthians as a serious rival to Rome. Moreover, the shame the Romans felt after the Battle of Carrhae was considerable. The battle scarred the Roman psyche and severely damaged the Roman ego. This study synthesizes and investigates what became a vicious and virulent Roman literary tradition of anti-Crassus propaganda, examining how numerous Roman writers over the course of numerous centuries used the dead and disgraced Crassus as a convenient scapegoat to help explain Rome’s failure to dominate the East and subdue the Parthian rival. It demonstrates that these writers ignored the legitimate causes for the First Romano-Parthian War (56 BCE – 1 CE), which Crassus had inherited, and illustrates that the disaster at Carrhae became a popular moralizing lesson about the consequences of greed, impiety, and hubris.

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Vitellius utolsó óráinak tacitusi megörökítéséből (Hist. III 84) kiindulva a császárkori „Silence of fear and intimidation” (A. Timonen) beszédes példáit interpretáltuk, különös tekintettel Tacitusra (Agr. prooem. etc.) és az ifj. Plinius Panegyricusának szervilis hízelgésére, illetve a caesari diktaturát titokban elítélő Cicero semiliber megnyilatkozásaira. Újból felhívtuk a figyelmet a plutarchosi Démétrios-élet-rajznak Tacitus megértését is segítő párhuzamaira.

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Molnér, K., Székely, Cs., Baska, F. (1991) Mass mortality of eel in Lake Balaton due to Anguillicola crassus infection. Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol. 11 , 211. Mass mortality of eel in Lake Balaton due to Anguillicola crassus

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Calpurnius Crassust, Tacitus kalandos sorsú kortársát („the perpetual conspirator”), R. Syme több alkalommal is említi monumentális Tacitus-monográfiájában, de „viszontagságait”(vicissitudes) sajnálatos módon érdemben nem tárgyalja. Ezt pótolta a III. Saalburg-kollokvium aktáiban D. Henning, aki fölöttébb tanulságosan ismertette a nyughatatlan (a szakirodalomban hol egzaltáltnak, hol fanatikusnak, megrögzött felforgatónak bélyegzett) Crassus-ivadék hányatott sorsát a „Vierkaiserjahr”-t követő zűrzavarok utáni évtizedekben, egészen az állítólag iniussu Hadrianitörtént likvidálásáig. Mi megpróbáltuk a kortárs Tacitus párhuzamos pályáját követni, illetőleg magyarázni: Crassus is, az ifj. Plinius is, meg még sokan asszisztáltak Domitianus „zsarnoki tombolása”mellett; és Tacitus? Nevéhez méltóan hallgatott,akárcsak a nyilvánosság előtt annak idején Cicero (tacendo et latendo),és így - az emberiség szerencséjére, okulásul - a maga módján megörökíthette a viharos század történéseit.

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Abstract

In this paper we present sedimentological and geochemical data for a section of fluvial deposits from SE Hungary covering the period of 25 to 5 ky BP. Major and trace element geochemistry of bulk sediments as well as stable C and O isotope compositions of the carbonate content indicate significant changes in depositional facies and/or sediment provenance. Correlations of mineralogical and geochemical compositions were used to determine the stable isotope compositions of authigenic calcite component. Additionally, C and O isotope compositions of Unio crassus shell fragments were analysed that show a good agreement with climate change. Major climate change events within the studied time period were detected both in the shells and the authigenic calcite's compositions.

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The spatial distribution of bivalves in relation to environmental conditions was studied along a second- and third order stream — medium-sized river (River Ipoly) — large river (River Danube) continuum in the Hungarian Danube River system. Quantitative samples were collected four times in 2007 and a total of 1662 specimens, belonging to 22 bivalve species were identified. Among these species, two are endangered (Pseudanodonta complanata, Unio crassus) and five are invasive (Dreissena polymorpha, D. rostriformis bugensis, Corbicula fluminea, C. fluminalis, Anodonta woodiana) in Hungary. The higher density presented by Pisidium subtruncatum, P. supinum, P. henslowanum and C. fluminea suggests that these species may have a key role in this ecosystem. Three different faunal groups were distinguished but no significant temporal change was detected. The lowest density and diversity with two species (P. casertanum and P. personatum) occurred in streams. The highest density and diversity was found in the River Ipoly, in the side arms of the Danube and in the main arm of the Danube with sand and silt substrate, being dominated by P. subtruncatum and P. henslowanum. Moderate density and species richness were observed in the main arm of the Danube with pebble and stone substrate, being dominated by C. fluminea and S. rivicola. Ten environmental variables were found to have significant influence on the distribution of bivalves, the strongest explanatory factors being substrate types, current velocity and sedimentological characteristics.

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A Makkabeusok első két könyve és Héliodóros regénye között van két figyelemre méltó párhuzam. Az előbbi (1Mak 6, 43–47 ~ Hél. 9, 17–18) tartalmi jellegű, azt a ritkán alkalmazott módszert jeleníti meg, mellyel az ókorban a harci elefántokat, illetve a páncélos lovasságot lehetett semlegesíteni, s amelyről más antik források is beszámolnak (Plut. Crassus 25, 8). A második párhuzam egy kettős oxymóron: „szárazföldön hajózni, tengeren gyalogszerrel járni” (2Mak 5, 21 ~ Hél. 9, 5, 5), de a fordulat változatai számos más görög és római szerzőnél is előfordulnak (Isocr., Panég. 89, 1–8; Curtius Rufus, Hist. Alex. Magni 9, 21, 4–6; Iamblichos, frg. dubia 101 Habrich, p. 73; Polemón, decl. 1, 8 és 28, decl. 2, 44; Achilleus Tat. 4, 14, 7–8; Lukianos, Rhetorum praeceptor 18, 17–18; Iulianus, or. 1, 22, 10–16). A görög és római szerzők mindig olyankor folyamodnak az oxymóronhoz, ha az abban hangsúlyosan kifejeződő képtelenséget valahol és valamiképpen mégis realizálódni vélik. Iulianus és Héliodóros egy-egy város ostromának körülményeit látják, illetve láttatják megvalósult oxymóronnak; Iulianus történelmi esemény, Nisibis Kr. u. 350-ben lazajlott ostromát írja le, s mert Héliodóros regényében Syéné ostroma (9, 1, 1 sqq.) sokban a császár elbeszéléséhez hasonlít, 350-et számos kutató a Héliodóros-kronológiát illetően is perdöntő dátumnak ítéli. Az oxymóron látnivaló népszerűsége azonban nyitva hagyja azt a lehetőséget, hogy Héliodóros történelmi példa nélkül, pusztán saját invenciójára támaszkodva bontott ki eseménysort az oxymóronból, más szóval, hogy valamikor a 3. század első felében működhetett.

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Central European Geology
Authors:
Attila Demény
,
Gabriella Schöll-Barna
,
Pál Sümegi
,
Péter Sipos
,
István Fórizs
,
Brigitta Réka Balázs
,
Bernadett Bajnóczi
, and
Gordon Cook

Abstract

In this paper we present sedimentological and geochemical data for a section of fluvial deposits from SE Hungary covering the period from about 20 to 5 ky BP. Major and trace element geochemistry of bulk sediments as well as stable C and O isotope compositions of the carbonate content indicate significant changes in depositional facies and/or sediment provenance as well as climate conditions. Variations in bulk sediment Sr, TiO2 and P2O5 concentrations were correlated with major climate change events following the Late Glacial Maximum that support the age model established on the basis of AMS 14C age data. Bulk sediment Sr concentrations and stable C and O isotope compositions of bulk sediment carbonate were determined by changes in denudation of carbonate rocks in the recharge area. The Sr and C-O isotope patterns show correlations with global temperature changes during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. However, TiO2 and P2O5 contents show correspondence with humidity changes, suggesting variations in chemical weathering. In addition to the sedimentological effects, C and O isotope compositions of Unio crassus shell fragments show strong changes at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, indicating that the bivalve shells can reflect climate conditions. On the other hand, shorter climate change events were difficult to track in the isotope records due to the competing fractionation processes. The combined evaluation of chemical and isotopic compositions revealed that beside the globally important Younger Dryas and Bølling/Allerød periods, the Ságvár-Lascaux interstadial was of local importance, in accordance with earlier studies.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors:
T. Müller
,
T. Molnár
,
A. Szabó
,
E. Yamaha
,
Éva Járási
,
M. Bercsényi
,
A. Specziár
,
B. Urbányi
, and
R. Romvári

, Cs., Molnár, K., Müller, T., Szabó, A., Romvári, R., Hancz, Cs., Bercsényi, M. (2004) Comparative study of X-ray computed tomography and conventional X-ray methods in the diagnosis of swimbladder infection of eel caused by Anguillicola crassus . Dis

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Crassus, der durch Bemühung in der Wortwahl und der Verbindung der lexikalischen Elemente 1 Bei der sprachlichen Beurteilung der älteren Historiker diagnostizieren Atticus und seine Dialogpartner im Brutus sowie Cicero und Catulus in De oratore einen

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