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HPTLC on amino plates, with simple heating of the plates for derivatization, has been used for quantification of glucosamine in nutritional supplements. On heating the plate glucosamine reacts to form a compound which strongly absorbs light between 305 and 330 nm, with weak fluorescence. The reaction product can be detected sensitively either by absorption of light or by fluorescence detection. The detection limit in absorption mode is approximately 25 ng per spot. In fluorescence mode a detection limit of 15 ng is achievable. A calibration plot for absorption detection is linear in the range 25 to 4000 ng glucosamine. The derivative formed from glucosamine by heating is stable for months, and the relative standard deviation is 1.64% for 600 ng glucosamine. The amounts of glucosamine found in nutritional supplements were in agreement with the label declarations.

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In thin-layer chromatography the development step distributes the sample throughout the layer, a process which strongly affects the reflection signals. The essential requirement for quantitative thinlayer chromatography is not a constant sample concentration but constant sample distribution in each sample spot. This makes evaporation of the mobile phase extremely important, because all tracks of a TLC plate must be dried uniformly. This paper shows that quantitative TLC is possible even if the concentration of the sample is not constant throughout the layer or if the distribution of the sample is not known. With uniform sample distribution, classical Kubelka-Munk theory is valid for isotropic scattering only. In the absence of this constraint classical Kubelka-Munk theory must be extended to situations where scattering is asymmetric. This can be achieved by modification of the original Kubelka-Munk equation. Extended theory is presented which is not only capable of describing asymmetrical scattering in TLC layers but also includes a formula for absorption and fluorescence in diode-array TLC. With this new theory all different formulas for diode-array thin-layer chromatographic evaluation are combined in one expression.

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