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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: A. Noga, M. Warchoł, I. Czyczyło-Mysza, I. Marcińska, K. Dziurka, T. Warzecha, and E. Skrzypek

Chlorophyll a fluorescence can provide insight into the ability of plants to tolerate environmental conditions that can damage photosynthetic apparatus and decrease yield. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters and yield components of oat DH lines. All DH lines significantly differed in chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters and yield components. The overall performance index of PSII photochemistry (PI), showed the highest variation between DH lines, whereas the lowest had the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm). The highest differences were observed in the number of grains per plant (21.3 to 600). Thousand-grain weight varied from 17.82 g to 41.01 g and the biomass from 8.01 g to 29.31 g. The highest negative correlations were found between Fv/Fm, Area (pool size of electron acceptors from PSII), PI and grain number per plant and biomass. Positive correlations were observed between light energy absorption (ABS/CS), grain number per plant and biomass, as well as the amount of excitation energy trapped in PSII reaction centers (TRo/CS) and biomass. Principal component analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, together with yield components, discriminated two oat DH lines groups according to their photosynthetic efficiency and yield.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: E. Skrzypek, M. Warchoł, I. Czyczyło-Mysza, I. Marcińska, A. Nowakowska, K. Dziurka, K. Juzoń, and A. Noga

Oat haploid embryos were obtained by wide crossing with maize. The effect of light intensity during the growing period of donor plants (450 and 800 µmol m−2 s−1) and in vitro cultures (20, 40, 70 and 110 µmol m−2 s−1) was examined for the induction and development of oat DH lines. Oat florets (26008) from 32 genotypes were pollinated with maize and treated with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. All the tested genotypes formed more haploid embryos when donor plants were grown in a greenhouse (9.4%) compared to a growth chamber (6.1%). The light intensity of 110 µmol m−2 s−1 during in vitro culture resulted in the highest percentage of embryo germination (38.9%), conversion into plants (36.4%) and DH line production (9.2%) when compared with lower light intensities (20, 40 and 70 µmol m−2 s−1). The results show that the growth conditions of the donor plant and light intensity during in vitro culture can affect the development of haploid embryos. This fact may have an impact on oat breeding programs using oat × maize crosses.

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Obert, B., Orosz, Á., Kovács, G., Barnabás, B. (1998):A haploid induckiós képesség vizsgálata jól indukálható és antérakultúrában nem reagáló kukoricatörzsek hibridjeiben. (Study of the androgenic capacity in crosses between highly androgenic exotic DH

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The objectives of the study were to test diversity among winter barley breeding lines exhibiting various sensitivity to FHB and to find RAPD markers and AFLP markers that will distinguish between susceptible and moderately resistant genotypes. A test of a set of winter barley genotypes artificially infected in field trials by fusaria was carried out. Based on the results from field and laboratory evaluation and deoxynivalenol (DON) content assessment, barley genotypes with different responses to FHB were selected. The genotypes were hybridized and doubled haploid (DH) lines were derived in F1 generation using the in vitro androgenesis method. Initial parental components and derived DH lines were tested for FHB infection and DON content. A set of parental genotypes of winter barley was tested with 80 RAPD markers. Based on analyses of 80 RAPD primers in a set of parental genotypes of winter barley, the primer H15 was selected that provides specific product of 650-bp size for moderately resistant winter barley genotypes. In consecutive detection, this specific product was found in 4 DH lines. During the study, some DH lines were selected that exhibited improved resistance to Fusarium infection. A low infection level and low DON content were found in the winter barley line DH 610 from the combination of Br2611m × Duet. The AFLP technique was used to analyze parental genotypes of winter barley as well as 7 selected DH lines of winter barley. The detected markers can be further evaluated and employed to select breeding materials.

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Salinity is one of the most serious agricultural problems throughout the world. The objectives of these studies were: 1. to determine if salt tolerance can be enhanced by combining characters related to salt tolerance (salt exclusion, and high growth rate and grain yield in saline conditions) and 2. to study the genetic basis of salt tolerance in doubled haploid (DH) lines developed using wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) × maize ( Zea mays L.) crosses. The 47 DH lines in experiment 1 and 22 DH lines in experiment 2 and their parents were grown in a controlled environment cabinet in nutrient solution with or without addition of 150 mM NaCl. Under the saline condition, the DH lines mean was significantly higher than mid-parental values for shoot fresh weight (SFW), shoot dry weight (SDW), root fresh weight (RFW), whole plant fresh weight (PFW), plant height (PH), number of tillers per plant (TNP), number of spikelets per spike (SNS), number of grains per spike (GNS), grain yield per plant (GYP), 100-grain weight (GW) and plant biomass (PB). Some DHs showed trangressive segregation for salt tolerance as determined by greater SFW, SDW, RFW, PFW, PH, TNP, SNS, GNS, GYP, GW and PB than the better parent. The genetic variances were greater than the error variances for all measured characters except K content in saline conditions. Moderate to high heritability estimates were found for all the characters studied in saline and control conditions. Salt exclusion was an important aspect of salt tolerance as Na content of leaves was negatively correlated with all growth characters at an early stage of growth, and with grain yield and yield components. We concluded that the higher salt tolerance of some DHs was due to the combination of genetic characters responsible for salt tolerance and salt tolerance is an inherited character.

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Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) world-wide. The objective of this study was to identify FHB resistance QTLs of the Brazilian spring wheat cultivar Frontana through molecular mapping. Frontana has small and medium effective QTLs. These types of QTLs are sensitive for the environmental factors and for the problems of heterogeneity. 206 DH lines from Frontana/Remus (IFA-Tulln) /2005–2006/ and 105 DH lines of Mini Mano/Frontana (CRC Szeged) /2006–2007/ were inoculated with isolates of F. graminearum and F. culmorum . The Frontana/Remus DH population had wide differences in flowering time and plant height. MM/Frontana was created by CRC, Szeged so that too early and late DH lines were discarded and the remaining lines flowered within five days. Lines with extra plant height were also discarded, so differences were kept within 20–30 cm. In the Frontana/Remus population QTLs were identified on the chromosomes 3B, 5A, 6B. In the MM/Frontana population chromosomes 3B and 5B gave positive signal. Although in both populations Frontana was the resistant parent no QTL markers were identical for them. It seems that the more homogeneous population increases the accuracy of the QTL analysis. An increased morphological homogeneity seems to be necessary to decrease „background noise“ in QTL analyses and increase precision. Until now no QTL were found that gave positive signs for all epidemic situations. As QTLs are not validated, it is early to apply MAS in breeding.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: T. Warzecha, T. Adamski, Z. Kaczmarek, M. Surma, P. Goliński, J. Perkowski, J. Chełkowski, H. Wiśniewska, K. Krystkowiak, and A. Kuczyńska

Fusarium culmorum (W.G.Sm.) Sacc. is a pathogen affecting seedling, head, root and stem of barley, and the infection can result in significantly reduction of yield and grain quality. The aim of the studies was to compare the susceptibility of hulless and hulled barley doubled haploids (DH) to infection with F. culmorum . Thirty DH lines (15 hulled and 15 hulless) and their parents were inoculated with a conidial suspension of the isolate of F. culmorum KF350 (IPO348-01) (nivalenol chemotype). Experiment was carried out over six years. Spike infection score, kernel weight per spike, 1000-kernel weight and percentage of plump kernels (>2.5 mm) were examined in control and inoculated plants. In addition, in three environments, nivalenol (NIV) accumulation in infected kernels was analysed. Significant influence of genotypes and environments on spike infection, yield-related traits and NIV accumulation was found in inoculated plants. Hulless genotypes appeared to be more susceptible to infection than the hulled lines. The difference in NIV accumulation was not important — mean NIV content over three environments was similar for both groups of DH lines. Results suggest that glumes adhered to seed may protect it, to a certain degree, against penetration of the pathogen inside the seed.

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Rice straw represents a significant energy source for ruminant animals, and fibers and lignin contents of rice straw are negatively related to intake potential of forages. For improvement of the digestibility of rice straw, it is necessary to understand the genetic basis of the related traits. In present study, mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL) was carried out using a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross between indica variety Zai-Ye-Qing 8 (ZYQ8) and japonica variety Jing-Xi 17 (JX17). The results indicated that all three parameters were continuously distributed among the DH lines, but many DH lines showed transgressive segregation for all the three traits. A total of three main-effect QTLs were identified for ADF and ADL, two of which, qADF-9 and qADL-9, shared the same region on chromosome 9. These two main-effect QTLs explained more than 20% of the total phenotypic variations, whereas the other QTL, qADF-5, explained 12.8% of the total phenotypic variation for ADF. In addition, another two epistatic QTLs, qADF-2 and qADF-3 could explain 17.6% of the total variations. Thus, we concluded that both main-effects and epistatic QTLs were important in controlling the genetic basis of ADF.

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Seventy-eight doubled haploid (DH) lines, derived from 21 elite and diverse winter × spring wheat F 1 hybrids, following the wheat × maize system, were screened along with the parental genotypes under in vitro and in vivo conditions for cold tolerance. Under in vitro conditions, the 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) test was used to characterize the genotypes for cold tolerance. Based on the TTC test, only one doubled haploid, DH 69, was characterized as cold-tolerant, seven DH and five winter wheat parents were moderately tolerant, while the rest were susceptible. Analysis of variance under in vivo conditions also indicated the presence of sufficient genetic variability among the genotypes (DH lines + parents) for all the yield-contributing traits under study. The correlation and path analysis studies underlined the importance of indirect selection for tillers per plant, harvest index and grains per spike in order to improve grain yield. It was also concluded that selection should not be practised for grain weight per spike as it would adversely affect the grain yield per plant. When comparing the field performance of the genotypes with the in vitro screening parameters, it was concluded that in addition to the TTC test, comprising a single parameter, other physiological and biochemical in vitro parameters should be identified, which clearly distinguish between cold-tolerant and susceptible genotypes and also correlate well with their performance under field conditions.

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Növénytermelés
Authors: Tamás Spitkó, Dr. László Sági, Dr. János Pintér, Dr. L. Csaba Marton, and Dr. Beáta Barnabás

Összefoglalás

Három évben, két termőhelyes kísérletekben vizsgáltuk in vitro dihaploid (DH) vonal eredetű hibridkukoricák termőhelyi és évjárat reakcióit. A vizsgált növényi anyagban összesen tizennégy hibridkombináció termés és betakarításkori szemnedvesség eredményét hasonlítottuk össze két standard hibridkukorica teljesítményének átlagával. A kísérletünk célja annak kiderítése volt, hogy az általunk tesztelt DH vonalakkal alkotott kukoricahibridek hogyan reagálnak a különböző környezeti feltételek változására. Az eredmények értékelését követően megállapítottuk, hogy az eltérő évek és különböző termőhelyek hatására a vizsgált genotípusok különbözőképpen reagáltak. A kísérlet főátlaga alapján a hibridek többsége statisztikailag jelentősen a standard átlag alatt teljesített, voltak azonban olyan dihaploid vonalak, amelyek hibridben realizált teljesítménye a standard értékével megegyezett. A hibridek martonvásári kísérletben kapott eredményei alapján lehetőségünk nyílt a szülővonalak általános kombinálódó képességének (GCA) kiszámítására. A vizsgálatok során találtunk olyan kombinációt, amelynek agronómiai értéke és termőképessége nem maradt el a standard átlagtól. A DH vonalakat in vitro növényregenerációs rendszerben állítottuk elő, majd hosszú szelekciós nemesítést követően vizsgáltuk több termőhelyes teljesítmény-kísérletekben. Az in vivo dihaploid előállítás gyakorlatával szemben az ilyen eredetű DH vonalakból származó kukoricahibridek korábban még nem kerültek köztermesztésbe Magyarországon.

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