Authors:S. Pirgozliev, R. Ray, S. Edwards, M. Hare, and P. Jenkinson
®) treatments on Fusarium head scab development, yield and deoxynavalenol (DON) content in grains of wheat following artificial inoculation with Fusarium culmorum . J. Plant Dis. Prot. 107 :33–52.
Authors:S. Popovski, K. Kos, B. Jakovac Strajn, and F.A. Celar
The genus Fusarium consists of multiple diverse species, which, as a result of their frequency in nature and pathogenicity, are significant in agriculture, as well as in human and veterinary medicine. In the course of field trials, by using standard phytopathological methods, and performing analyses of 19 different varieties of wheat and a portion of infected grains gathered from two distinct locations in Slovenia, we have determined the presence of various phytopathogenic species of the genus Fusarium. Because of the reliability, the experiment was performed in two consecutive years, 2012 and 2013. A laboratory analysis was conducted with an ELISA test on all grain samples for the determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) concentration. The results show that the main differences in the infection levels (F. culmorum + F. graminearum; FC + FG) of wheat samples were found in Jable (humid area), at the same time showing higher levels of DON content than Rakičan (dry area). Such a statement is supported by correlation test, where correlation is evident between FC + FG and DON in every variation. The data for both wheat types (awned and awnless) together showed that the grain in Jable is statistically significant more infected by FC + FG when compared to that in Rakičan. Moreover, our descriptive analysis confirms that the infection rate of grain with FC and FG shows a strong correlation with the emergence of DON.
Authors:Helge Skinnes, Yalew Tarkegne, Jon Dieseth, and Åsmund Bjørnstad
Until now, testing for resistance to FHB in cereals has been expensive and affected by differences in environmental conditions. Rapid screening methods are needed. Recently it was discovered that in wheat good extrusion of anthers (AE) is associated with high resistance to FHB. In one genetic study a fan-shaped pattern was found: The variation and level of FHB/DON was reduced when AE increased. In order to verify these results, 69 varieties of winter wheat from Germany and Scandinavia and 136 varieties of spring wheat from GRAMINOR breeding in Norway were tested for AE and resistance to FHB and DON. The fan-shaped distribution was found also here. Accordingly, AE is recommended as a new and inexpensive screening method for low FHB. When sufficient moisture is available in the period before flowering and wind do not remove anthers, field selection for AE could be made, in other cases greenhouse selection is recommended.
Jelen közleményünkben a TIM adatbázis talajain és már
meglévő adatain alapuló statisztikai elemzést végeztünk, azzal a céllal, hogy
kiderítsük mely talajparaméterek okozzák az oldott szerves anyag (DOM),
valamint ezen belül is a DOC, DON koncentráció és a DOC/DON arány változását. A
talajokat két csoportra osztottuk: karbonátos (CaCO
0,1%) és karbonátmentes (CaCO
tartalom < 0,1%) talajokra.Mind a
karbonátos, mind a karbonátmentes talajcsoportnál az eredeti változókból
főkomponenseket képeztünk annak érdekében, hogy az egymással korreláló
változókat egy főkomponensbe sűrítsük, ezáltal a talajtulajdonságok hatásának
értelmezése könnyebbé válik. Három főkomponenst kaptunk a karbonátmentes
csoportban: F1 –amely a talaj humusztartalmát és a mechanikai összetételt, F2
–amely a talaj aciditási faktorait (pH, y
) és az F3 –amely a CaCl
N-formákat tartalmazza. Karbonátos talajoknál szinte ugyanezt kaptuk, eltérés, hogy
ennél a talajcsoportnál az F1 főkomponenes tartalmazza az aciditási
tulajdonságokat, az F2 pedig a szerves-ásványi jellemzőket.
A vizsgálat eredményeit az alábbiakban
foglalhatjuk össze:–A legnagyobb hatással az oldott szerves anyag változókra
(DOC, DON, DOC/DON) a CaCl2-oldható N-formákat tömörítő
főkomponensnek volt mindkét talajcsoport esetében.–Az aciditási paramétereket
tömörítő (pH és y1) főkomponens és a talaj DOC tartalma között
szignifikáns, negatív összefüggést találtunk mind a karbonátos, mind a
karbonátmentes talajoknál. –Az irodalommal ellentétes módon a
„humusz-agyag”-főkomponensnek nagyon csekély hatását tapasztaltuk mind a DOC,
mind pedig a DON koncentrációira.–Karbonátmentes talajok esetében azt találtuk,
hogy a DOC mennyiségét a három főkomponens a következőképpen határozza meg: DOC
= 0,54*** F3(N) –0,36** F2(Hu) + 0,27** F1(Ac).–Karbonátos talajoknál a
regressziós egyenlet: DOC = –0,46** F1(Ac) + 0,42** F3(N) _+
In this article, the author provides a panoramic view of Jorge Luis Borges' literary world, focusing especially on the figure of Fodor Dostoievski. As a starting point, an interview is considered. The main concern of the paper is an interpretation of Six problems for Don Isidro Parodi (aka Seis problemas para don Isidro Parodi), which Borges wrote under the pseudonym `Honorio Bustos Domecq', together with Adolfo Bioy Casares. The presence of Dostoievski is pointed out in these rather bizarre police novels.
Authors:Qiang Ren, Tianrui Xia, Xian-Gao Quan, Lin Ding, and Hui-Yun Wang
Scutellaria barbata D. Don has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for antitumor and anti-inflammatory. However, there were just a few investigations about S. barbata D. Don according to bioactivity-directed isolation and online identification for the chemical constituents. In this work, eight compounds were isolated from S. barbata D. Don. The three flavonoids indicated the cytotoxic activity against human leukemic Reh cell lines. In addition, the constituents of S. barbata D. Don were further characterized and identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS). The UHPLC- Q-TOF-MS method was in negative ion mode. HPLC separation was performed on a Tosoh TSK gel ODS-100V (4.6 × 150 mm, 3.0 μm) column by gradient elution using water containing 0.3% formic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL min−1. A total of 18 compounds, including 4 phenolic acids and 14 flavonoids were tentatively characterized and identified by means of the retention time, accurate mass, and characteristic fragment ions.
Mycotoxins are gaining utmost importance due to the fact that aflatoxins were found to be natural carcinogens prevailing in food and feedstuffs. Chronic health risks are particularly prevalent in India where the diets of the people are highly prone to mycotoxins due to poor harvesting practices, improper storage and transport. The
toxins of greatest concern are fumonisins, trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol (DON) and T-2 toxin) and zearalenone. The current paper describes the disease outbreaks of
toxins in India due to ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated food. DON was implicated in an outbreak of emetic syndrome in Kashmir State. An outbreak of acute foodborne disease caused by fumonisin has been reported in south India during 1995 affecting 1,424 people due to contaminated sorghum and maize. Trichothecenes have been involved in an acute human mycotoxicosis known as alimentary toxic aleukia (ATA) in India during 1987 and were attributed to the consumption of mouldy wheat. These outbreaks continue to be a significant health problem of people in India because of their poor purchasing ability that compels them to consume contaminated food.