-disciplinary recognition among the interviewers over different time periods and environmental conditions. In particular, directcitation is a commonly adopted bibliometric technique for analyzing the distribution of references across disciplines.
This paper examines the use of direct citation in the correspondence between the Egyptian Pharaoh and his officials and his Syro-Canaan vassals in the El-Amarna archive. A frequent phenomenon in the modern and ancient world alike, direct citation serves to support the writer’s claims, lay the blame on or absolve others, demonstrate loyalty, and depict distress. The examples adduced fall into four categories: authoritative, third-party, confirmative, and fabricated/ imaginary speech. Raising the question of the validity of applying modern linguistic theories to ancient sources, these types are analysed in the light of the international diplomacy that flourished in the Fertile Crescent during the 14th-century BCE.
Comparing properties of citing and cited source items opens a wide variety of analytical possibilities. In a study of citations
among papers in the journal Scientometrics a number of analytical themes are identified. The analysis shows: the way in which a citation graph can be decomposed into
different subparts; country specific citation patterns; the effects of self-citations and domestic citations; the mapping
of cited author relationships using direct citation and co-citation links; and time slicing effects on impact ranking of countries
. This is then the h -index of this researcher at this time and we will denote it by h . It is well-known and clear that the h -index is a measure of direct impact since it is calculated on the directcitations received by the papers of this researcher
Authors:Eleni Fragkiadaki, Georgios Evangelidis, Nikolaos Samaras and Dimitris A. Dervos
metrics have been proposed that use the collection of all articles a researcher has (co-) authored, plus the sum of all directcitations received. Such indexes are the h-Index (Hirsch 2005 ), g-Index (Egghe 2006 ), and their variations.
clusters of co-cited articles and later Chen ( 2006 ) used these findings to detect emerging trends in scientific literature. In recent work Shibata et al. ( 2009 ) analysed the performance co-citation, bibliographic coupling and directcitation in
receive at least r citations) is called the single publication H- index of the fixed publication.
The main idea behind this definition is that not only direct impact of a publication is important (directcitations to this publication) but also
between documents in the dataset under study can be based on the number of shared (significant) words, or on the number of shared cited references (bibliographic coupling), or on a combination of these two numbers, or on directcitations.
authors, journals, documents, other similarity measures have been used for connecting these entities such as bibliographic coupling and directcitation. The relative usefulness or accuracy of these measures has also been studied. The earliest reference to
and the other side should be restricted to the core-document representation only. The outcomes from such directcitation analysis are sketched in Fig. 1 (solid lines). The following step concerns the detection of new emerging topics, provided that