are E . faecium and E . faecalis , but other species have emerged, such as E. casseliflavus and E. gallinarum ( Braïek and Smaoui, 2019 ). Enterococcus spp. can adapt to diverse substrates and growth conditions, including the ability to
antimicrobials including fluoroquinolones in E. faecalis and Enterococcus faecium [ 20, 21 ]. Additionally, there are other resistance mechanisms in enterococci comprising mutational alteration of the target, for example the substitution of the second D
there is limited data regarding the molecular characteristics of multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. faecalis isolates in hospitalized patients in Iran, this study was designed to examine the prevalence of genes encoding antimicrobial resistance among E
In this study, we analyzed the microcalorimeter behavior of E. faecalis at different concentrations in an enriched culture medium. As experimental equipment we used a Calvet microcalorimeter.
Materials and methods
The sub-acute toxicity of E. faecalis HZNU P2 was investigated in rats fed with different doses for 14 days. To evaluate the acute oral toxicity of E. faecalis HZNU P2, rats were fed with E. faecalis HZNU P2 at a high dose of 2×1011 CFU kg−1 for 10 days. Results showed that there were no abnormal clinical signs in any of the groups during the experiment. There were no significant differences in live weight gain among rats fed with E. faecalis HZNU P2, compared to those in control group. Macroscopic or microscopic examinations of organs revealed no abnormalities, indicating that E. faecalis HZNU P2 did not adversely affect the health of rats. Results of this study demonstrated that digestion of E. faecalis HZNU P2 in rats did not show any obvious signs of toxicity.
42 (36.5%) E. faecium and 36 (31.3%) E. faecalis strains. Thirty-two (27.8%) bacterial strains were found to be resistant to 2–4 antibiotics, 68 (59.1%) to 5–9 antibiotics and 15 (13%) to more than 9 antibiotics. The highest resistance (97.5%) was
We investigated the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) solution in comparison to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) in the elimination of intracanal Enterococcus faecalis biofilm. Extracted human teeth were inoculated with E. faecalis. After preparation the canals were irrigated with ClO2, NaOCl, CHX or physiologic saline for control. Two and five days later bacterial samples were collected and streaked onto Columbia agar. CFU/mL were counted. The canal walls were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The gas phase was investigated in an upside down Petri dish where E. faecalis was inoculated onto blood agar. The irrigants were placed on absorbent paper into the cover. Bacteria were detectable in the control group, but not in any of the irrigants groups. There was a massive reinfection 2 or 5 days after irrigation in the control group. The lowest reinfection was found after the ClO2 treatment. These findings were confirmed by SEM images. We observed an antibacterial effect of ClO2 and NaOCl gas phases on E. faecalis growth, but not of CHX. ClO2 eliminates intracanal biofilm and keeps canal nearly free from bacteria. We suggest the use of high purity ClO2 as a root canal irrigant in clinical practice.
Enterococcus faecalis is one of the most significant pathogen in both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Reduced susceptibility to antibiotics is in part due to efflux pumps. This study was conducted on 80 isolates of E. faecalis isolated from outpatients with urinary tract infection during a period of 1 year from April 2014 to April 2015. The antibiotic susceptibility patterns of isolates were determined by the disk diffusion method and presence of efrA and efrB genes was detected by PCR and sequencing. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to ciprofloxacin (CIP) were measured with and without carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) by broth microdilution. The highest resistance rate was observed to erythromycin (83.3%) and the prevalence of efrA and efrB genes in all E. faecalis isolates was 100%. This study showed that 9 out of 13 (69.2%) ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates became less resistant at least fourfolds to CIP in the presence of efflux pump inhibitor. Our result showed that CCCP as an efflux inhibitor can increase effect of CIP as an efficient antibiotic and it is suggested that efrAB efflux pumps are involved in resistance to fluoroquinolone.
The Enterococcus faecalis bacteria have been identified as the most commonly recovered species from teeth with persistent endodontic infections. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and chloroform (CHL), alone and in association with various concentrations of cetrimide (CTR), against biofilm of Enterococcus faecalis was investigated. Solutions of CHL, eucalyptus oil (EO) and orange oil (OO) associated with CTR at 0.3%, 0.2%, 0.1%, and 0.05% were used to determine antimicrobial activity by exposing treated bovine dentine blocks to E. faecalis. Biofilms grown in the dentine blocks for 7 days were exposed to solutions for 2 and 5 min. Biofilm reduction between OO and EO at 2 min did not show any significant differences; however, OO had a higher kill percentage of biofilms than did the eucalyptus oil at 5 min (p < 0.01). Combinations with CTR at all concentrations achieved a 100% kill rate at 2 and 5 min. The association of CTR with solvent agents achieved the maximum antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis biofilms in dentine.