are E . faecium and E . faecalis , but other species have emerged, such as E. casseliflavus and E. gallinarum ( Braïek and Smaoui, 2019 ). Enterococcus spp. can adapt to diverse substrates and growth conditions, including the ability to
monocytogenes in UHT milk. In this study, non-pathogenic and bacteriocin producer E. faecium HZ strain was evaluated as an adjunct culture for use in industrial production of white-brined cheese in terms of its biopreservation and aroma production capacities
, L.E. : Molecular detection of aggregation substance, enterococcal surface protein, and cytolysin genes and in vitro adhesion to urinary catheters of Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium of clinical origin . Int J Med Microbiol 299 , 323
pathogen has increased over the decade, albeit to different degrees ( Fig. 2A ). The MS Excel SLOPE function was used to rank the species. K. pneumoniae had the highest slope value, followed in order by P. aeruginosa , E. faecium , S. aureus , A
further differentiated coagulase negative staphylococci ( n = 57). Further, 148 Gram-positive cocci in doubles or chains were observed, comprising Enterococcus faecalis ( n = 38), E. faecium ( n = 41), E. gallinarum ( n = 3), Lactococcus lactis
Cloacal House Number of swab samples 300 50 Number of VREfm isolates 6 13 P value 0.606 <0.001 Genotyping of VRE isolates van A, van B, Enterococcus gallinarum (van C1), Enterococcus casseliflavus ( van C2/3), E. faecalis -specific and E. faecium
Campylobacteriosis is mainly caused by infection with Campylobacter jejuni following consumption or handling of Campylobacter-contaminated poultry meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotic Enterococcus faecium AL41 on TGF-β4 and IL-17 expression and on immunocompetent cell distribution after C. jejuni infection in broiler chicken, as a second part of the previous study of Karaffová et al. (2017). Accordingly, day-old chicks were randomly divided into four experimental groups of 10 chicks each (n = 10): control (C), E. faecium AL41 (EFAL41), C. jejuni CCM6191 (CJ), and combined E. faecium AL41 + C. jejuni CCM6191 (EFAL41 + CJ). Samples from the caecum were collected on days 4 and 7 post Campylobacter infection (dpi), for the isolation of mRNA of TGF-β4, IL-17 and for immunohistochemistry. The relative mRNA expression of TGF-β4 was upregulated in the combined (EFAL41 + CJ) group compared to other groups during both samplings, but the expression of IL-17 was downregulated. Similarly, the highest density of CD3+ was detected in the combined group at 7 dpi, but the number of IgA+ cells was increased in both groups with EFAL41. It was concluded that the EFAL41 probiotic E. faecium strain can modulate the expression of selected cytokines (upregulation of TGF-β4 but downregulation of IL-17 relative expression), and activate IgA-producing cells in the caeca of chicks infected with C. jejuni CCM6191.
Enterococci, a complex group of facultative pathogens have become increasingly isolated in various hospital settings. They are considerable frequently cultured from traumatic and surgical wounds. We investigated 57 strains of the species E. faecalis, E. faecium and E. casseliflavus isolated from infected wounds. Their ability to produce virulence factors and their sensitivity to antibiotics were evaluated using phenotypic and genotyping methods. In the phenotype studies, significant portion of the isolates produced biofilm (66.7%) and gelatinase (36.8%). Nearly 30% of the strains expressed hemolytic properties. Only a few produced DNAse (15.8%) and lipase (7.0%). The genes esp, gelE, cylA, cylB, cylM and agg were detected in most of the isolates (38.6–87.7%). All the isolated enterococci were susceptible to vancomycin and were characterized by their low resistance to antibiotics, except aminoglycosides (HLR).
The presence of the
gene was determined in enterococci from healthy poultry, originating from the Hungarian resistance monitoring system between 2001 and 2004. Enterococci (n = 562) were collected from intestinal samples of slaughtered broiler chickens. The presence of
genes was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) strains carried only the
gene. Genus- and species-level identification of the
gene carrier strains was carried out by PCR using specific primers. In 2001, 25 out of the 289 isolated strains (8.6%) were
). In 2002 (n = 87), 20 (23%) strains were
). In 2003 and 2004, none of the strains (n = 95 and 91, respectively) were positive for the most common
genes. In 2003, there was only one strain for which higher minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of vancomycin (4 mg/L) and teicoplanin (8 mg/L) were found. In 2004 there were three strains for which the MIC of vancomycin was 8 mg/L, and 2 strains and 1 strain with teicoplanin MICs of 4 mg/L and 8 mg/L, respectively. The potential similarity of these strains was studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The VRE strains were not closely related to one another. The annual data of vancomycin resistance indicate an association between the recovery of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and the use of avoparcin in animal feeds. This study indicates that with the reduced use of antibiotics in food animals, it is possible to decrease the rate of resistant bacteria. Although the use of avoparcin had been banned in 1998, the VRE strains disappeared only five years later.
In order to investigate the possible role of dogs and cats in the carriage and potential dissemination of resistant enterococci, seventy faecal samples from dogs and cats were tested for enterococci. Fifty-eight enterococci were recovered. Isolates were identified as Enterococcus faecium (n = 31) and E. faecalis (n = 14) E. durans (n = 6), E. casseliflavus (n = 2), E. hirae and E. gallinarum (2 isolates each). Enterococcal isolates showed resistance to ciprofloxacin (n = 35), erythromycin (n = 31), tetracycline (n = 25), kanamycin (n = 15), streptomycin (n = 13), pristinamycin (n = 11), gentamicin (n = 10), chloramphenicol (n = 8), and linezolid (n = 6). The gene erm(B) was detected in 22 out of 31 erythromycin-resistant enterococci. All tetracycline-resistant enterococci carried tet(M) and/or tet(L) genes. The gene aac(6′)-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia was identified in five of high-level gentamicin-resistant isolates, the genes aph(3′)-IIIa and/or aac(6′)-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia in eleven high-level kanamycin-resistant isolates and the gene ant(6)-Ia in eleven high-level streptomycin-resistant isolates. Only one strain harboured cat(A) gene, and five strains contained vat(E) or vat(D) genes. Virulence genes gel(E) (21 strains), esp (11 strains) and cylA/cylB (5 strains) were detected. High genetic diversity was demonstrated among E. faecium isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Dogs and cats can be carriers of antibiotic-resistant enterococci in their faeces that could shed into the household environment.