are E . faecium and E . faecalis , but other species have emerged, such as E. casseliflavus and E. gallinarum ( Braïek and Smaoui, 2019 ). Enterococcus spp. can adapt to diverse substrates and growth conditions, including the ability to
further differentiated coagulase negative staphylococci ( n = 57). Further, 148 Gram-positive cocci in doubles or chains were observed, comprising Enterococcus faecalis ( n = 38), E. faecium ( n = 41), E. gallinarum ( n = 3), Lactococcus lactis
In order to investigate the possible role of dogs and cats in the carriage and potential dissemination of resistant enterococci, seventy faecal samples from dogs and cats were tested for enterococci. Fifty-eight enterococci were recovered. Isolates were identified as Enterococcus faecium (n = 31) and E. faecalis (n = 14) E. durans (n = 6), E. casseliflavus (n = 2), E. hirae and E. gallinarum (2 isolates each). Enterococcal isolates showed resistance to ciprofloxacin (n = 35), erythromycin (n = 31), tetracycline (n = 25), kanamycin (n = 15), streptomycin (n = 13), pristinamycin (n = 11), gentamicin (n = 10), chloramphenicol (n = 8), and linezolid (n = 6). The gene erm(B) was detected in 22 out of 31 erythromycin-resistant enterococci. All tetracycline-resistant enterococci carried tet(M) and/or tet(L) genes. The gene aac(6′)-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia was identified in five of high-level gentamicin-resistant isolates, the genes aph(3′)-IIIa and/or aac(6′)-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia in eleven high-level kanamycin-resistant isolates and the gene ant(6)-Ia in eleven high-level streptomycin-resistant isolates. Only one strain harboured cat(A) gene, and five strains contained vat(E) or vat(D) genes. Virulence genes gel(E) (21 strains), esp (11 strains) and cylA/cylB (5 strains) were detected. High genetic diversity was demonstrated among E. faecium isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Dogs and cats can be carriers of antibiotic-resistant enterococci in their faeces that could shed into the household environment.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of occurrence of bacteria of the genus Enterococcus in poultry, to identify them by means of matrixassisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF MS), and to analyse the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolated strains to the drugs most frequently used in poultry. The material for the bacteriological tests was obtained mainly from the heart (97%) of the birds investigated. Of a total of 2,970 samples tested, 911 (30.7%) tested positive for Enterococcus spp. Enterococci were detected in broilers (88.1%), laying hens (5.3%), turkeys (3.9%), breeding hens (2.2%), and geese (0.4%). The most commonly identified species were Enterococcus (E.) faecalis (74.7%), E. faecium (10.1%), E. gallinarum (5.5%), E. hirae (4.6%), and E. cecorum (4.1%). The most frequent resistance properties were resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (88%), tylosin (71.4%), enrofloxacin (69.4%), doxycycline (67.3%), and lincomycin/spectinomycin (56.1%). Only one vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, E. cecorum from a broiler, was found.
(Bio-Rad Laboratories, Nazareth, Belgium). Enterococcus faecalis WHO3 ( van A), E. faecalis WHO14 ( van B), E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus strains were used for the optimisation of multiplex PCR and PFGE in the laboratory studies