An evaluation of E° (3/2) redox potentials of lanthanides and actinides with fqd electronic configuration is achieved. It takes into account the known equations already given for elements with fq electronic configuration and a proposed correction due to the fqd electronic stabilization.
Mathematical duality in economic dynamics offers a fresh insight for applied research. The dichotomy of causes and objectives is fading away in economics just like it disappeared from physics over the past century. The struggle between apparently conflicting theories gives way to practical approaches of empirical assessment of economic motion. We present an approach based on the Goodwin model which offers a clear exposition and deeper insight by using the mathematical concept of the ‘first integral’. Goodwin’s classic model of the economic cycle stands on the dividing line between the teleological and the causal school of thought and is theoretically acceptable to both. Inputs and outputs, aims and means, causes and objectives are organically interconnected in his approach that also provides a computationally simple alternative to facilitate the numerical and graphical description of economic cycles.
Drawing on data from 11 successive waves of yearly wage surveys carried out by the Public Employment Service in Hungary from 1992 to 2003, the paper examines, with the use of elementary statistical tools, whether or not earnings fluctuations differ in size across groups of employees with different degrees of schooling and labour market experience, and if they do, whether the observed differentials might be related to differences in the experience-earnings profiles of those groups.Although preliminary, our findings suggest that earnings fluctuations do differ in magnitude across those groups, and that, moreover, their magnitudes vary in positive association with group-specific global and local slopes of the relevant experience-earnings profiles.Assuming that (1) differences in the observed magnitudes of earnings fluctuations are at least partly due to differences in the flexibility/rigidity of the market rates of earnings, and that (2) the flexibility/rigidity of those rates is a determinant of unemployment, it seems reasonable to expect that long-discovered systemic differences in unemployment across groups of employees with different degrees of schooling and experience (and, perhaps, across countries as well) might also be related in part to differences in experience-earnings profiles
The theory of economic motion was András Bródy’s main interest. This paper presents a simplifi ed framework of Bródy’s economics. His multi-sector production and price theory is based on the Marxian theory of value reinterpreted by using measurement considerations. Economic motion in this framework is driven by technology represented by the internal proportions of production, not by external shocks. Prices and proportions jointly determine the economic structure and its motion (duality of prices and volumes). We derive the laws of motion of production and use of goods (consumption and accumulation) based on technological accounting balances. These laws determine a cyclical pattern. Using numerical examples we demonstrate how external changes in technology and valuations are propagated in changing the cyclical pattern of motion.
This paper examines the effects of company income taxation. Therefore, a tax system is implemented in a dynamic, stochastic macroeconomic model with endogenous financial structure. In addition to the long-term level effects that are in line with the deterministic public economics literature, cyclical effects are identified. Besides insurance incidences, company income taxation implies amplifying effects. Depending on the model’s frictions, the latter can dominate and lead to more volatile business cycles.
Business cycle synchronisation and the similarity in the sectoral structure of exports are key conditions for the successful implementation of common monetary policy, as shown by the theory of Optimum Currency Areas. This paper examines the degree of correlation between the aggregate euro area and 12 member states’ business cycles and the role of their exports specialisation dynamics vis-à-vis the euro area over the period 1981–2012, focusing in particular on Southern European countries. Overall, we find that since the inception of the European Monetary Union, the business cycles of euro area member states have been increasingly synchronised with the aggregate euro area cycle, with the exception of Greece. We also document that changes in the Greek, Portuguese, and Spanish export structures brought these countries closer to the euro area structure as a whole. Furthermore, we find a positive and significant relationship between the similarity of export structures and GDP cyclical correlations.
Authors:Endrit Lami, Holger Kächelein, and Drini Imami
Over the last decades, there has been plenty of research and publications on Political Business Cycles (PBC), aimed at analysing and explaining the use of fiscal and monetary instruments to stimulate economic growth before elections, with the intention of impressing potential voters. Previous research on PBC in Albania reveals clear evidence of fiscal expansion before elections, but no significant changes in GDP and inflation as theory predicts. One possible explanation of this result could be economic agents’ expectations, which is the subject of this paper. We analyse consumers’ expectations before elections, the main factors underlying expectations, and the way in which these expectations influence their behaviour toward spending, and consequently the macroeconomic outcomes, deploying standard econometric methods widely applied in PBC related research. According to our research results, households’ consumption spending decreases before elections because of the higher uncertainty about their future economic situation due to the highly politicised public employment.
Authors:Jovan Njegić, Dejan Živkov, and Jelena Damnjanović
This paper strives to investigate the level of business cycles synchronisation between 8 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) and the EU-15. We use wavelet coherence and phase difference methodology as a very suitable tool that observes simultaneously the strength of business cycles’ co-movement in the aspect of time as well as in the aspect of frequency. The results indicate that the business cycles of CEECs are generally synchronised with the EU-15 business cycles, whereas distinct differences existed before, during, and after the financial crisis (2008–2009) and during the European sovereign debt crisis (2010–2011). In other words, we demonstrate that very strong business cycles synchronisation occurred in almost all CEECs during crisis periods and at higher wavelet scales, while only moderate synchronisation is recorded in relatively tranquil periods at higher frequencies. The results suggest that smaller CEECs, but also larger countries such as the Czech Republic, Hungary, and to some extent Slovakia as well have a higher level of business cycles synchronisation with the EU-15, particularly in the crisis period at short-run as well as at long-run fluctuations. However, we do not find strong business cycles co-movement in cases of Poland and Latvia via HP and BP filters at higher frequencies during the crisis, which might indicate a higher resistance of these countries to external systemic shocks.
In this paper I use a New Keynesian model with unemployment and estimate it for the Romanian economy using Bayesian techniques. I use the estimated model to derive an estimation of the Okun coefficient. I alternatively estimate the Okun coefficient using the Bayesian linear regression. The results show that the Okun coefficient is high in the Romanian economy implying that the current crisis will have a severe impact on the labour market as well as important social effects.
For many years Keynesian fiscal policy became very popular and was used by governments to fight slowdowns and recessions. In the 1980s and in the next three decades, this policy lost much appeal among economists in academia, though less among governments. The financial crisis of 2007–2008 and the following Great Recession brought a sudden revival of interest in and use of fiscal policies. This paper outlines the main criticisms that were directed at the Keynesian fiscal policy from the beginning. Some of these criticisms are less-known than others.