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immunoassays (EIAs) [ 2 , 3 ]. A major problem of this strategy, however, is the limited sensitivity of most commercial toxin EIAs. This obstacle may be overcome by the additional use of highly sensitive and specific nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT

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Authors: Ralf Ignatius, Christiane Berg, Chris Weiland, Angela Darmer, Thilo Wenzel, Marion Lorenz, Jörg Fuhrmann and Michael Müller

]. SATs comprise enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) or immunochromatography assays (ICAs), detecting H. pylori antigens by the use of either monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies. In general, ICAs are easier to perform than EIAs, but previous studies have shown

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KA Musser 2010 Comparison of premier CAMPY enzyme immunoassay (EIA), ProSpecT Campylobacter EIA, and ImmunoCard STAT! CAMPY tests with culture for laboratory diagnosis of Campylobacter enteric

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Albergaria R., Fidelis T. Trounsboundary EIA: Iberian experiences, Environmental Impact Assessment Review , Vol. 26, No. 7, 2006, pp. 614–632. Fidelis T

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Authors: Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, Emilio Arreola-Cháidez, Juan López, Karla Itzel Salcido-Meraz, Sergio Estrada-Martínez, José Antonio Navarrete-Flores, Alma Rosa Pérez-Álamos, Marcia Hernández-Ochoa, Elizabeth Rábago-Sánchez and Oliver Liesenfeld

Through an age- and sex-matched case-control study, we sought to determine whether female sex workers have an increased risk of Toxoplasma gondii exposure and to determine the sociodemographic, work, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of these workers associated with T. gondii exposure. Female workers (n = 136) and controls (n = 272) were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA) for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. IgM positive sera were additionally tested with enzyme linked-fluorescence immunoassay (ELFA). Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 21 (15.44%) of 136 cases and in 10 (3.67%) of 272 controls (OR = 4.05; 95% CI: 1.84–8.89; P = 0.0001). Anti-T. gondii IgG levels higher than 150 IU/ml were found in 13 (9.6%) of 136 cases and in 8 (2.9%) of 272 controls (P = 0.007). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in two cases and in six controls by EIA, but all were negative by ELFA. T. gondii seropositivity was associated with being born out of Durango State (OR = 10.47; 95% CI: 2.9–36.8; P < 0.01), injuries during sex work (OR = 6.30; 95% CI: 1.1–33.7; P = 0.03), and soil contact (OR = 4.11; 95% CI: 1.2–14.0; P = 0.02). This is the first report of an association of T. gondii infection and female sex workers.

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Authors: Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, Alma Rosa Pérez-Álamos, Yazmin del Rosario Rico-Almochantaf, Sergio Estrada-Martínez, Raquel Vaquera-Enriquez, Arturo Díaz-Herrera, Agar Ramos-Nevarez, Ada Agustina Sandoval-Carrillo, José Manuel Salas-Pacheco, Sandra Margarita Cerrillo-Soto, Elizabeth Irasema Antuna-Salcido, Oliver Liesenfeld and Carlos Alberto Guido-Arreola

Infection with Toxoplasma gondii in brain may cause some symptoms that resemble those in women with premenstrual syndrome. To determine the association of T. gondii infection with symptoms and signs of premenstrual syndrome, we examined 489 women aged 30–40 years old. Sera of participants were analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA) and T. gondii DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 38 (7.8%) of the women studied. Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in 13 (34.2%) of the 38 IgG seropositive women. Logistic regression showed two variables associated with seropositivity to T. gondii: presence of diarrhea (odds ratio [OR] = 6.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.37–27.85; P = 0.01) and weight gain (OR = 2.89; 95% CI: 1.37–6.07; P = 0.005), and two variables associated with high (>150 IU/ml) levels of IgG against T. gondii: presence of diarrhea (OR = 7.40; 95% CI: 1.79–30.46; P = 0.006) and abdominal inflammation (OR = 3.38; 95% CI: 1.13–10.10; P = 0.02). Positivity to EIA IgG and PCR was positively associated with obesity and negatively associated with joint pain by bivariate analysis.

Our study for the first time reveals a potential association of T. gondii infection with clinical manifestations of premenstrual syndrome.

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. Microsoft Office 2000 Electronic Industries Association (EIA) (1991): Interface Between Data Terminal Equipment and Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment Employing Serial Binary Data

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Ghrelin is a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide originally identified in the rat stomach as an endogenous ligand of the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue receptor. Recent work suggests that ghrelin plays an important role in reproductive function. In this study, prepubertal pig ovaries were used to examine ghrelin levels in the ovarian follicles. Ghrelin levels in the follicular fluid, follicular wall and culture medium were measured using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The ghrelin level in the follicular fluid (18 pg/ml) was the sum of the amounts found in the follicular wall (13.7 pg/ml) and the culture medium (4.6 pg/ml). In conclusion, the data presented in this paper suggest local production of this hormone in ovarian follicles.

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Authors: Samir El-Masry, Mahmoud Lotfy, Mona Samy, Shadin Moawia, Ibrahim El-Sayed and Islam Khamees

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a large family of enzymes that degrade extracellular matrix proteins (ECM). MMPs are implicated in different pathological conditions such as cancer. Bcl-2 and P53 are key controllers of programmed cell death (PCD) or apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the MMP-9, P53 and Bcl-2 levels in Egyptian patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) (Group I) compared with healthy control individuals (Group II). The concentrations of serum MMP-9 were determined quantitatively using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). P53 and Bcl-2 levels were assayed by flow cytometric analysis using specific monoclones. MMP-9 level was significantly higher in MTB patients compared with healthy control. Similarly, P53 and Bcl-2 levels were increased in MTB patients compared with healthy ones. These data reflect the alteration of MMP-9 level during the course of MTB infection, accompanied with apparent dysregulation of cellular apoptosis as indicated by P53 and Bcl-2 over-expression.

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kniga kniazei i dvorian rossiiskikh i vyezzhikh ..., i kotoraia izvestna pod nazvaniem Barkhatnoi knigi . Chasti 1–2. Moscow. Rummel’, V. V. (1900): Neskol’ko slov o «Barkhatnoi Knige» i o pechatnom eia izdanii

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