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Authors: E. Schall, Zs. Bugyi, L. Hajas, K. Török and S. Tömösközi

procedures for quantitative food allergen ELISA methods: Community guidance and best practices . J. AOAC Int. , 93 , 442 – 450 . Besler , M. , Steinhart

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Authors: L. Hajas, K. A. Scherf, Zs. Bugyi, K. Török, E. Schall, P. Köhler and S. Tömösközi

. Bugyi , Z. , Török , K. , Hajas , L. , Adonyi , Z. , Popping , B. & Tömösközi , S. ( 2013 ): Comparative study of commercially available gluten ELISA kits using an incurred reference material . Qual. Assur. Saf. Crop., 5

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– 210 . Crowther , J. R. (Ed.) ( 1995 ): ELISA Theory and Practice . Humana Press Inc., Totowa, New Jersey, USA

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Zachary, A. A., Ratner, L. E., Graziani, J. A. és mtsai: Characterization of HLA class I specific antibodies by ELISA using solubilized antigen targets: II. Clinical relevance. Human Immunology, 2001, 62 , 236

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Authors: Tímea Milisits-Németh, Orsolya Gabriella Balogh, István Egerszegi, László Kern, R. Garth Sasser and György Gábor

The early detection of pregnancy and the determination of fetal numbers have economic benefits in sheep production because of the seasonal breeding patterns where missing a breeding opportunity means the loss of one productive year. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the B6-HRP ELISA for ovine pregnancy-specific protein B (oPSPB) measurement in the detection of pregnancy and estimation of fetal numbers in different sheep breeds. BioPRYN® ELISA assay kit was used for the detection of pregnancy in the experimental animals. Ninety-three ewes of three breeds (British Milksheep – BM, Lacaune – L and Transylvanian Racka – TR), each from three farms in Hungary, were included in the study. BM and L ewes were artificially inseminated (AI). Thirty-five days after AI, all ewes were examined by transabdominal ultrasound. The TR flock was mated naturally over a six-week period. At the end of the mating period, the ewes were similarly examined by ultrasound. Blood samples were taken from all pregnant ewes twice (35 and 65 days after AI), and serum samples were assayed by the BioPRYN test. It can be concluded that the detection of serum PSPB by ELISA is a much easier, safer, less expensive and highly accurate method for the detection of ovine pregnancy. Although some breed-related differences were detectable at 35 and 65 days post breeding, no differences in oPSPB levels were found in pregnant ewes carrying different numbers of fetuses.

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Ear rots of maize caused by Fusarium spp. reduce grain yield and produce mycotoxins, which are harmful to humans and animals. To breed maize cultivars resistant to Fusarium spp., reliable large-scale phenotyping is essential. Our objectives were to (i) examine the precision of the ELISA method for determination of important mycotoxins, namely deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FUM), (ii) evaluate the potential of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to estimate concentrations of DON and FUM in grain produced in inoculated maize plants, and (iii) compare the efficiency of ELISA, NIRS, and visual rating of disease severity for estimation of mycotoxin concentrations. Insignificant variation was observed between duplicate evaluations of DON and FUM by ELISA, showing the high repeatability of this method. DON and FUM determinations by ELISA were more closely correlated with mycotoxin concentrations predicted through NIRS than with visual rating of disease severity. For the prediction of DON, NIRS had very high magnitude of the coefficients of determination of calibration and cross validation (R 2 = 0.90–0.88). Thus, NIRS has a promising potential to predict DON concentration in grain samples of inoculated maize genotypes evaluated in resistance breeding programs.

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Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are widely used to determine gluten contamination in gluten-free and low gluten food samples. ELISA assays developed using monoclonal antibodies against known toxic peptides have an advantage in the identification of toxic prolamin content in protein extracts of different food samples, as well as raw materials. R5 and G12 monoclonal antibodies specific for two known toxic peptides used in commercially available gluten ELISA assays were applied to test toxic peptide contents in wheat relatives and wild wheat species with different genome composition and complexity. Although the R5 peptide content showed some correlation with ploidy levels in Triticum species, there was a high variance among Aegilops species. Some of the analysed diploid Aegilops species showed extremely high R5 peptide contents. Based on the bioinformatics analyses, the R5 peptide was present in most of the sulphur rich prolamins in all the analysed species, whereas the G12 epitope was exclusively present in alpha gliadins. High variation was detected in the position and frequency of epitopes in sequences originating from the same species, thus highlighting the importance of genotypic variation within species. Identification of new prolamin alleles of wheat relatives and wild wheat species is of great importance in order to find germplasm for special end-use quality purposes as well as development of food with reduced toxicity.

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Abraham, A. and Albrechtsen, S. E. (2001): Comparison of penicillinase, urease and alkaline phosphatase as labels in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of plant viruses. Journal of Plant Diseases and

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65 79 Banks, M., Tehranchi, B. and Weightman, S. (1995): Aujeszky.s disease ELISA using glycoprotein gE (gI) expressed in baculovirus. In: Schwyzer, M., Ackermann, M., Bertony, G

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Authors: H. Hampikyan, E.B. Bingol, H. Colak, O. Cetin and B. Bingol

Ochratoxin A, is a well-known nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin, produced by some species of mould genera such as Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. under various environmental conditions, such as moisture and temperature. The main sources of Ochratoxin A intake for humans are cereals and cereal derived products, when they are consumed in large quantities, as in the case of breakfast cereals and cereal based baby foods principally consumed by babies. In this study, a total of 150 samples (50 infant formulas, 50 follow-on formulas, and 50 cereal based supplementary foods for infants and children) were obtained randomly from various supermarkets and pharmacies in Istanbul, and 52 out of 150 (34.7%) analysed samples were contaminated with Ochratoxin A. None of the examined baby food samples were above the Turkish Food Codex maximum limit of Ochratoxin A in baby, infant, and young children foods (0.5 μg kg−1). These results reinforce the idea of strict and routine quality controls and good hygiene practices have to be performed in every step of production to minimize the potential risk of Ochratoxin A contamination.

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