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Sixty-one avian strains of Pasteurella multocida were characterised and compared by biochemical tests, capsular PCR typing and ERIC-PCR. The strains were recovered from various avian species (goose, duck, Muscovy duck, turkey, chicken and pheasant) and represented different geographic locations in Hungary. Forty-two strains (69%) were identified as P. multocida subsp. multocida and 19 strains (31%) as P. multocida subsp. septica . The strains were grouped into 7 different biovars (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7). The most prevalent biovars were 1 (25%), 3 (21%) and 6 (21%). Most of the duck isolates (90%) belonged to biovar 1 or 6. The most frequent capsular type was A (93.5%). Type F represented only a small number (6.5%) of the strains. Other capsular types were not identified. From the 61 isolates 24 different fingerprint patterns were generated by ERIC-PCR assay. Based on cluster analysis the strains could be grouped into four larger and four mini-clusters that showed considerable correlation with the geographical origin and the host species. The results indicate that ERIC-PCR may be a suitable technique for studying the host adaptation of P. multocida and the epidemiology of fowl cholera.

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The emergence of 16S rRNA methylase genes encoded on plasmids confers high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR). This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of 16S rRNA methylases among Enterobacter cloacae strains isolated from an Ahvaz teaching hospital, Iran. A total of 68 E. cloacae clinical strains were collected between November 2017 and September 2018. The MICs of aminoglycosides were assessed using the agar dilution method. The presence of 16S rRNA methylase genes, including armA, rmtA to rmtH, and nmpA was evaluated by PCR. The transferability of 16S rRNA methylase-harboring plasmids was evaluated by conjugation assay. The genetic diversity of all isolates was evaluated by ERIC-PCR. The armA and rmtB genes were the only 16S rRNA methylase genes detected in this study (29 out of 68 isolates; 42.64%). The transferability by conjugation was observed in 23 rmtB or/and armA positive donors. HLAR phenotype was in 33 of 68 strains. Ten clonal types were obtained by ERIC-PCR and significant associations (p < 0.05) were between the clone types and aminoglycoside susceptibility, as well as with profile of the 16S rRNA methylase genes. In conclusion, both horizontal transfer and clonal spread are responsible for dissemination of the rmtB and armA genes among E. cloacae strains.

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. Sellyei , B. , Varga , Z. , Ivanics , E. , Magyar , T. : Characterisation and comparison of avian Pasteurella multocida strains by conventional and ERIC-PCR assays . Acta Vet Hung 56 , 429 – 440 ( 2008 ).

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extension at 72 °C for 7 min. PCR products were then electrophoresed in a 1.5% (w/v) agarose gel. Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966 and E. coli ATCC 25922 were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. ERIC-PCR analysis GCAT-positive samples

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, bla OXA-48 ) [ 14 ]. Epidemiological typing was done by ERIC PCR [ 15 ]. The ERIC patterns of the studied isolates were subjected to UPGMA analysis. Similarity of >70% was used as a threshold for clonal relatedness of the isolates. The study was

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Aminoglycosides are widely recommended for treatment of Acinetobacter baumannii infections in combination with β-lactams or quinolones. This cross-sectional study was aimed to investigate the coexistence of aminoglycoside modifying enzyme (AME) genes among A. baumannii isolates from clinical samples in Ahvaz, Iran. A total of 85 clinical A. baumannii isolates typed by ERIC-PCR were investigated for the presence of AME genes, including ant(3″)-Ia, aac(6′)-Ib, aac(3′)-Ia, ant(2″)-Ia, and aph(3′)-VIa by PCR. The resistance rates to aminoglycoside agents were evaluated by disk diffusion. In this study, 84 out of 85 A. baumannii isolates were resistant to at least one of the aminoglycosides and harbored at least one AME gene. The most common gene encoding AMEs was aph (3′)VIa, followed by aac(3′)-Ia, ant(3″)-Ia, ant (2″)-Ia, and aac(6′)-Ib. The aminoglycoside-resistant genotypes were completely matched to resistant phenotypes to each one of the aminoglycoside agents. There was a clear association between AME gene types and the phenotype of resistance to aminoglycosides with their ERIC-PCR types. Our findings highlight the coexistence of AME genes and clonal dissemination of multiresistant A. baumannii in hospital setting.

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Staphylococcal infections have high occurrence in Jordanian patients. This study was carried out to determine the rates of high- and low-level mupirocin resistance (MupH and MupL) among staphylococci with the molecular characterization. Two hundred and thirty-two non-duplicate Staphylococcus spp. isolated from different clinical specimens were tested for mupirocin susceptibility using disk diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Resistance genes and clone relatedness was studied using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus primers (Eric-PCR) for the latter. Plasmid curing was performed to determine the genetic location of MupA gene. Among the 232 strains, 144 (62%) were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), 33 (14.2%) methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and 55 (23.7%) were of other coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (CoNS). Of all strains tested, only 6 (2.6%) were mupirocin resistant. MecA gene was detected in both MupL and MupH strains but MupA gene was only detected in MupH. Plasmid curing improved the plasmidic location of MupA gene. Molecular typing by Eric-PCR method revealed heterogenicity of the genetic make up of our MupL and MupH strains. Staphylococci with MupA-carrying genes are present in Jordanian hospitals, but thank to the limited use of mupirocin, they remain rare.

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We report an investigation on a collection of multidrug-resistant Enterobacter cloacae isolates from a Hungarian neonatal intensive care unit. All the isolates (n=142) were examined by antimicrobial susceptibility testing and ERIC-PCR. The seven ESBL positive isolates (derived from six patients) made up a separated group with regard to their patterns by antimicrobial susceptibility testing and ERIC-PCR and were further tested by class-1-integron PCR and plasmid electrophoresis. The ESBL isolates were found indistinguishable in each of these laboratory tests, one genetic clone were revealed in the background of ESBL cases by PFGE. The ESBL positive isolates were proven to harbour a ∼62 Md plasmid and two class-1 integrons (0.9 kb, 1.875 kb). With respect to their clinical relatedness and our laboratory findings there was a small outbreak caused by the ESBL clone. PCR-sequencing were performed on the outbreak strain and has revealed a bla SHV gene that encodes for an SHV-2a type ESBL enzyme. This is the first description of SHV-2a positive E. cloacae strains isolated in Hungary.

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was extracted by alkaline lysis method ( Rouhrazi & Rahimian, 2015 ). rep-PCR was performed under the BOX-A1R-based repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR, ERIC-PCR, and REP-PCR conditions, using the BOX primer: BOXA1R (5′-CTACGGCAAGGCGACGCTGACG-3

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. M. : Antibiotic sensitivity patterns and molecular typing of Shigella sonnei strains using ERIC-PCR . Iran J Public Health 42 , 1151 – 1157 ( 2013 ). 11. Ranjbar , R

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