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Educatio
Authors: Csaba Makó, Miklós Illéssy, and András Borbély

Absztrakt:

A digitalizáció megjelenésével ismét felerősödtek a munkahely elvesztésével kapcsolatos félelmek. Az EU-27 országaiban minden második munkavállaló jelentős autonómiát és tanulást igénylő kreatív munkahelyen dolgozik, miközben egynegyedük munkájára a rutinfeladatok ellátása a jellemző. Az előbbiek munkáját kevésbé, az utóbbiakét viszont nagymértékben veszélyeztethetik a számítógépek. Ugyanakkor jelentősek az országok közötti különbségek: a skandináv, kontinentális és angolszász országokban a kreatív munkavégzés az EU-átlagnál nagyobb arányban fordul elő, ennek fordítottja jellemző az EU mediterrán és közép-kelet-európai országaira, ahol rutinfeladatokat képviselő taylori munkahelyek az EU átlagnál nagyobb arányban fordulnak elő. Magyarország a sereghajtók közé tartozik, és az elmúlt évek tendenciái sem kedvező irányúak.

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Abstract

In this paper we analyse the trends and developments of energy imports as a percentage of gross inland energy consumption including bunkers in Hungary and the European Union countries between 2000 and 2011. Data show that the average of the energy dependence increased in the EU27 Member States (7.1 percentage points) and in Hungary, too (3.4 percentage points). The energy intensity in Member States is examined as well. According to the data the energy intensity decreased in the majority of the Member States, the average decreased by 16 percent.

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We are immersed in a knowledge society that calls for indicators to go beyond economic factors to measure the development of a country. In this paper we use an adapted microeconomic model that determines the value of a country’s intellectual capital. For this, we consider intangibles such as human development, economic structure, international trade, foreign image and innovation. This measurement of intellectual capital is divided into human and structural capital and is used to analyse the relationship between these capitals and the economic development of the 27 countries in the European Union (EU27). The results show that when we consider aspects other than economic variables, the differences between countries are larger. Moreover, there is an inverse relationship between the management of intangibles and economic growth, which is why the former progresses after the latter have occurred.

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Abstract  

The journal set which provides a representation of nanoscience and nanotechnology at the interfaces among applied physics, chemistry, and the life sciences is developing rapidly because of the introduction of new journals. The relevant contributions of nations can be expected to change according to the representations of the relevant interfaces among journal sets. In the 2005 set the position of the USA decreased more than in the 2004-set, while the EU-27 gained in terms of its percentage of world share of citations. The tag “Y01N” which was newly added to the EU classification system for patents, allows for the visualization of national profiles of nanotechnology in terms of relevant patents and patent classes.

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Abstract

Energy efficiency measures and the enhancement of investments in renewable energy play important role in sustainable development and lead to advancement of competitiveness of national economies. The increase of renewable energy consumption and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions are significant stages of the process to achieve the main purposes of sustainable development at global and national levels.

In this paper the change in the share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption and in the greenhouse gas emissions intensity in Hungary between 2004 and 2011 is investigated.

It is demonstrated that the share of the renewable energy in gross inland energy consumption increased during the examined period. The measure and the tendency of the change in Hungary show similarity to the EU 27 average.

The greenhouse gas emissions intensity of energy consumption decreased in Hungary between 2004 and 2011. According to the data, the decrease is the second largest among the European Member States.

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The subject of the paper is the analysis of price convergence in the European Union in general and in the Central and Eastern European member states in particular. The first part of the paper is an overview of the relevant literature on price convergence serving as the theoretical foundation of the subsequent empirical analyses on comparative price levels. The second part discusses sigma convergence in the EU-27 including the old (EU-15) and the new (EU-12) member states, as well as within the Economic and Monetary Union. Conditional (weak) beta convergence in the EU-12 is also analyzed. The first conclusion of the paper is that a rather strong relationship exists between sigma convergence and the process of economic integration, more precisely between sigma convergence and the establishment of the individual stages of regional economic associations. The second conclusion is that price convergence is not a secular process; it may be impeded or accelerated by a great number of micro and macroeconomic factors.

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The first part of analysis draws out homogenous clusters of countries out of the 27 EU states based on their business cycle synchronicities with the euro area (EA) 12, quantified by correlations of cycles between the 27 countries’ GDP components and the EA12’s GDP1. The purpose is to compare the obtained country groupings with the countries that have adopted the euro in practice. This exercise is performed using fuzzy cluster analysis and is carried out for pre- and post-euro periods. Knowing that the recent global and euro zone crisis might impact the post-euro findings, the analysis for the post-euro period is done with and without the crisis period. In the second part of the analysis, a discriminant technique is applied to the clustering findings to ascertain the GDP component whose cycle synchronicity contributes most to the partitioning obtained in the cluster analysis. In a nutshell, findings indicate a significant divergence within EU27 and EA12 in the post-euro period and that business cycle symmetry concerning the GDP component of capital investment as a more significant determinant to country partitions.

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Az Eurostat előrejelzése szerint az EU27 népességének 45,52%-a lesz 2040-ben 65 év feletti. A nagyarányú nyugdíjaztatások következtében hiány lesz a magasan kvalifikált munkaerőből csaknem valamennyi területen. Amikor 2050-re átlagosan már csak két aktív dolgozó jut egy nyugdíjasra, a jóléti ellátások Európa-szerte drasztikusan hanyatlani fognak, és növekszenek majd az egészségügyi és nyugdíjrendszerek kiadásai. Amennyiben az európai gazdaság az elkövetkező években magához tér, továbbra is szüksége lesz mérnökökre, orvosokra, különféle szakemberekre, akikből máris számos országban súlyos hiány mutatkozik. A problémát súlyosbítja, hogy a felsőoktatás általában nem követi a munkaerőpiac szükségleteit és voltaképpen növeli a fiatal diplomások munkanélküliségét. Az elöregedő európai társadalom szakemberszükségletét várhatóan néhány évtized múlva más forrásokból kell biztosítani, és erre kínálkozik a hatalmassá növekedett indiai felsőoktatás; Indiában ma is mintegy 120-140 millióan beszélnek jól angolul. Azonban az indiai felsőoktatás mai helyzete számos problémát mutat, amelyeket várhatóan az elkövetkező évtizedekben leküzdenek és keletkezik majd ott jól képzett munkaerő, amely bárhol a világon képes munkát vállalni, ehhez azonban arra van szükség, hogy a saját gondjait is megoldó európai felsőoktatás rendszeres és szoros munkakapcsolatot építsen ki az indiai felsőoktatási intézményekkel annak érdekében, hogy kölcsönösen megismerjék az elvárásokat és lehetőségeket.

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Are there any long standing benefits in international equity investing? Did the acceleration of global financial integration bring clearly measurable benefits to international equity investors? Is there a convergence of equity market profitability around the world? These are the main questions of this paper. All of these questions got an affirmative answer, but, as it may be immediately suspected, many durable qualifiers and caveats apply. Section 1 reviews some key propositions of modern investment theory and some recent evidence on the benefits of international asset allocation on equity markets. It is argued that the desired benefits — as predicted by theory — can be and have been captured in terms of better risk/return trade-offs due to international diversification of equity portfolios. Manifest benefits aside, however, many dampening factors come into play when considering long term capacities of realising these benefits. Mainly the changing correlation structure of global markets and the increased currency risk, which still remained very difficult to hedge, were identified as permanent factors to limit the power of international diversification in pushing out the efficient frontier of the equity set. Section 2 presents comparative evidence on global equity markets’ performance and gives an account of the wide variations in the US dollar denominated returns of major markets, developed and emerging. There is some support to the view that a certain convergence can be depicted in the profitability levels of different markets. Exchange rate movements, however, accounted for almost one third of variations in profitability on average. As of April 2007, stock market valuations did favour emerging markets (and to some extent EU-27) when compared to Japan or the US.

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Crisis and economic growth in the EU

Medium and long-term trends

Acta Oeconomica
Authors: P. Halmai and V. Vásáry

Projections Methodologies for EU27 Member States (2007–2060) . European Economy 7. DG ECFIN, Brussels. EC (2009a): Economic Forecast Spring 2009 . European Economy 3. DG ECFIN, Brussels. EC

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