Authors:Małgorzata Kaczanowska and Janusz K. Kozłowski
The Balkans, particularly southern and central, were sparsely populated in the Mesolithic and the occupation networks in that period were discontinous and highly diversified, contrasting with the density and homogeneity of the Early Neolithic. The aim of this paper is to describe the environmental conditions of the Mesolithic sites in relation to Early Holocene climatic fluctuations and to discuss the causes of specificity and diversity of culture and behaviour at this period.
Some general trends are observable in the adaptation to Early Holocene environments (trends in faunal exploitation; for ex. shift from high ranked large game to low ranked small animals) but also particular adaptations to local conditions (technological changes due to difficulties in access to better quality lithic raw materials, adaptations to coastal or to terrestrial resources reflecting the unique features of site use, etc).
The diversity of the Mesolithic is also reflected in cultural taxonomy: in some sequences continuity of the Balkan Epigravettian techno-morphological tradition can be seen as opposed, in other sequences, to highly isolated groups with technology and tool morphology adapted to local raw materials and specific activities. The Balkan Mesolithic was not completely cut-off from the Western Mediterranean techno-morphological influences (particularly in Southern Greece) and from the Anatolian lithic traditions (seen only in the Northern Aegean). A more intensive network of marine contacts is confirmed by obsidian circulation in the Aegean Basin.
Authors:Attila Demény, Gabriella Schöll-Barna, Pál Sümegi, Péter Sipos and Brigitta Réka Balázs
In this paper we present sedimentological and geochemical data for a section of fluvial deposits from SE Hungary covering the period of 25 to 5 ky BP. Major and trace element geochemistry of bulk sediments as well as stable C and O isotope compositions of the carbonate content indicate significant changes in depositional facies and/or sediment provenance. Correlations of mineralogical and geochemical compositions were used to determine the stable isotope compositions of authigenic calcite component. Additionally, C and O isotope compositions of Unio crassus shell fragments were analysed that show a good agreement with climate change. Major climate change events within the studied time period were detected both in the shells and the authigenic calcite's compositions.
Palaeosols and soils of early Holocene (9,000–10,000 yr BP) and Neoglacial (<1200 yr BP) ages from three sections in the Okstindan Mountains in central Norway were analyzed to determine their geochemical compositions. Four buried horizons and a surface sample all had significant water/organic contents. The highest Br (and also Th, U and possibly the REEs) contents were associated with the highest water/organic contents. From the rare earth and other elemental concentration variations, it appears that the three sections were formed from three parent materials, different horizons of which have been affected by weathering and plants.
. Kozák, M. Braun, E. Félegyházi, E. Hertelendi 1994: Archeological and Paleoecological study of an EarlyHolocene settlement in the Jászság Area. -- Acta Geographica, Geologica et Meteorologica Debrecina, 32, pp. 5