When dealing with Isis, Serapis and the other members of the so-called ‘gens isiaca’, scholars have hesitated whether to emphasize their (indisputable) historico-geographic origin in the Nile valley or their (no less indisputable) character as Graeco-Roman cults. We thus find these deities referred to as ‘Egyptian’, ‘Graeco-Egyptian’, ‘Graeco-Roman’, ‘Greek’, ‘Roman’ and, again, ‘Oriental’, ‘Orientalized Roman’, and so on. Each of these definitions is evidently partial, which is one reason for the growing preference for the less specific terms ‘Isiac gods’ and ‘Isiac cults’. Yet even these elide the problem of how these cults were perceived in relation to Egypt. This article aims to challenge the terms of the conventional dichotomy between Egyptian and Graeco-Roman, by exploring the many specific contexts in which ‘Egypt’ was appropriated, for example, by institutions, intellectuals (e.g. ‘Middle-’ and Neo-Platonists), Christian apologists, late-antique encyclopedists, etc. Starting with the comparandum ‘Persianism’ recently highlighted in relation to the cult of Mithras, the paper will explore the various interests and aims involved in the construction of ideas of Egypt, which might even involve more than one ‘Egyptianism’ at the same time. Each of our nine suggested ‘Egyptianisms’ is the creation of numerous ‘producers’, who adapted what they knew of ‘Egypt’ (‘foreign’, ‘exotic’, ‘other’) to create their own religious offers. Our basic model is derived from the Erfurt project Lived Ancient Religions, which inverts the usual representation of ancient religion as collective (‘polis religion’, ‘civic religion’) in favour of a perspective that stresses individual agency, sense-making and appropriation within a range of broader constraints.
Abd-Rabou , S. ( 1999 ): Seven species of superfamily Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) new to Egypt . J. Agric. Res. 77 , 1205 – 1215 .
Abd-Rabou , S. ( 2002 ): Revision of Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera) from Egypt . Second
The concentration of 27 elements has been measured using neutron activation analysis in a cigarette brand commercially manufactured in Egypt and in three foreign brands available on the Egyptian market. The cigarette components examined were cigarette tobacco, cigarette wrapping paper and cigarette ash. All results are expressed in absolute values per cigarette. The concentration of Al, As, Ba, Br, Cl, Cs, Eu, Fe, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, Ti and V in the Egyptian cigarette were above the range determined for the foreign brands examined; however, Ce, Co, Cr, Hf, K, La, Mg, Se and Zn were within that range. Except for K, Mn, Ni and Ti, the above conclusions was the same for elements determined in the ash. The wrapping paper used for the Egyptian cigarette contains the lowest quantity of Cl and Mn.
Neutron activation analysis has been employed to determine the concentration of 27 elements in an Egyptian cigarette filter before and after smoking. The filter of three foreign cigarette brands are also analyzed and compared to the Egyptian brand. The elements determined are Al, As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, Ti, V and Zn. It is observed that the concentration of the measured elements in the Egyptian brand are within the concentration range of foreign brands, and that the concentration of As, Br, Cl, K, Na and Se in the filters are increased after smoking regardless the brand examined.
Abd-Rabou , S. ( 2006 ): Hymenopterous parasitoids as a bioagent for controlling homopterous insects in Egypt . Egypt. Adv. Agric. Res. 6 , 1 – 65 .
Abd-Rabou , S. and Ghahari , H. ( 2004 ): A revision of Encarsia